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Lymphatic & Immune

Chapter 10

lymph a fluid extracted from blood plasma, has a lower amount of suspended proteins than plasma. In the tissue it's called interstitial fluid, in the capillaries & vessels its lymph
thoracic duct collects lymph from the left side of head, left arm & chest, both legs, dumps into left subclavian vein
right lymphatic duct collects lymph from right side of head, right arm & chest, dumps into right subclavian vein
lymphoid nodule small area w/ many lymphocytes packed into areolar tissue, NOT surrounded by capsule
surface membrane barriers provides a physical barrier & produces secretions which kill pathogens (skin, mucus membranes)
natural killer cells detect pathogens and release cytotoxic chemicals to kill them
inflammation reduces the spread of pathogens & stimulates the immune response
interferons antimicrobial chemicals released from infected body cells, they warn nearby healthy body cells who then increase their defenses
complement antimicrobial chemicals which agglutinates (sticks) onto a pathogen, making it difficult to spread
fever stimulate immune cell response making the pathogen uncomfortable in the body
antigens substances on the surface of the cell membranes that can provoke an immune response
self-antigens found on the surface of our body cells
foreign antigens not normally found in the body
macrophages antigen presenting cells engulf (eat) foreign particles and place fragments of these on their own surface to signal immunocompetent T cells
helper T cells CD4 cells "directors/managers" activated by an antigen presenting cell they stimulate B & killer cells, attract other WBCs, and increase the activity of the macrophages
killer T cells cytotoxic T cells CDB cells specialized killers, directly attack & kill cancer, infected, and foreign graft cells. inject toxic chemicals into target cell membranes
B-lymphocytes B cells produce & release antibodies called immunoglobulins
plasma cells antibody factories, created when B cells are activated & divide
memory B cells on guard for second exposure, if this happens they divide into plasma cells created when B cells are activated & divide
bacteria one celled organisms, gram + no membrane; gram - have membrane
viruses one celled organisms, can live inside a host body
fungi myocoses single or multi cells can come from inside or outside the body
parasite a living organism that lives inside the host
prion non living proteins which can cause changes in the brain of infected people and animals
autogenous infections infections caused by an organism already living inside the host
cross infections illnesses spread from person to person
droplet contact through aerosolized droplets spread by sneezing, coughing, or talking
airborne smaller particles (than droplet) spread in the air, they can survive longer in the air without drying out
oral-fecal fecal to ingesting
bodily fluids contact with body fluids
vector another organism carries the pathogen. mechanical=carries outside its body and transmits it. biological= pathogen is spread from inside the vector usually through a bite (west nile)
indirect contact touching a contaminated surface
Created by: michellerolfs



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