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Anatomy

Exam 1/Chapters 1-5

QuestionAnswer
Which subspecialty of anatomy studies the structures and function of cells? Cell Biology
Atoms and molecules are part of which level of organization in the human body? Chemical
A structure made up of two or more types of tissues that performs a specific set of functions is at what level of organization? Organ
Which system of the body is responsible for elimination of wastes and regulating the volume and composition of the blood, including production of red blood cells? Urinary
The development of specialized cells from unspecialized stem cells is a description of which of the following basic life processes? Differentiation
Cells transport materials from 1 region of the cell to another just as the body transport substances to dif locations, or skeletal muscles can transport you from the sofa to the refrigerator. What basic life process is illustrated by this description? Movement
Which of the following situations would represent a serious disruption of the homeostasis of the volume and composition of body fluids? Becoming dehydrated as your lifeboat drifts on the empty ocean
Homeostasis of the body is controlled through a series of steps called a feedback sys or feedback loop. 1 comp of such sys is a control center. Which of the following organs would frequently serve as the control center for a feedback system? Brain
After working a 12 hour shift at the hospital Louisa comes home and lies down on her bed. She is lying on her back looking up at the ceiling with her head resting on her arms. What is her body position? Supine
Which pair of terms could be used to describe the location of the nose when compared to the location of the eyes? medial and inferior
Regulation of blood glucose in the body is an example of homeostasis. T/F True
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the best images of bone fractures, but due to expense, x-rays are used most often. T/F False
All of the following would be methods of studying anatomy except using devices that measure heart rate and respiration
Which of the following is found within cells? cytosol
Which is not a subspecialty of anatomy? endocrinology
In terms of percentage of body mass, what is the most abundant chemical element in the body? Oxygen
Which of the following elements is a trace mineral in the body? Iodine
Each element has a unique identifying number called the atomic number. Which of the following subatomic particles is(are) represented by the atomic number? Protons
An atom whose valence electrons conform to the octet rule is: less likely to form any bond with another atom
What type of chemical bond commonly forms between adjacent water molecules? hydrogen bonds
In order to use polysaccharides as an energy source, one must break them down to monosaccharides
Triglycerides that are solid at room temperature are considered to be _____ fats
Weak acid and weak bases that can add or remove protons (H+) to fluids in the body, thereby helping to keep pH levels at homeostatic levels, are called _____. Buffers
Blood is a complex body fluid. If a vial of blood is drawn for a blood test and is allowed to sit in a rack for some time, the red blood cells will settle out and drift to the bottom of the tube. What type of fluid? Suspension
Smaller organic molecules such as glucose or amino acids can be combined into larger macromolecules. What do we call the smaller molecules from which the macromolecules are built? monomers
Which of the following molecules is a polymer of a smaller carbohydrate unit? glycogen
In the lab, Celia adds concentrated sulfuric acid to a beaker full of water. She touches the side of the beaker and finds the solution she's made has become hot. This is evidence of an endergonic reaction. T/F False
Proteins folded into pleated sheets or twisted into a helix(spiral) are considered to be _____ structure proteins. Secondary
When looking at nitrogenous bases in DNA, cytosine will always pair with guanine
The primary source for ATP is the human body is glucose
The cytoplasm of a cell is made up of which of the following? the cytosol and organelles
In what part of a cell would you find most of a cell's genetic material? Nucleus
Which of the following best describes the basic structure of the plasma membrane of a cell? lipid bilayer
Which membrane proteins are involved with the transport of molecules that otherwise would be unable to enter the cell? carrier proteins
Dietary glucose is transported into a cell against its concentration gradient with the aid of membrane proteins called Na+/glucose _____. symporters
What type of endocytosis allows cells to "drink" (take up tiny droplets of extracellular fluid)? pinosytosis
Which of the following organelles plays an important role in phagocytosis (a type of endocytosis), contains a variety of digestive enzymes, and has transport pumps that maintain an acidic pH inside the organelle? Lysosomes
Which of the following organelles oxidizes toxic substances such as alcohol, and breaks down other potentially harmful by-products of metabolism? peroxisomes
The nucleus of a cell contains one or more of these structures that are the site of production of ribosomes. nucleolus
Genetic information in DNA and RNA is stored as a sequence of three nucleotide bases. On DNA a group of three nucleotides is called a _____, while on the complementary strand of mRNA, this sequence is called a ____. base triplet / codon
During the translation phase of protein synthesis, where would you find an anticodon? on the strand of tRNA
In somatic cell division, a cell undergoes a nuclear division called ____, and a division of its cytoplasm called _____. mitosis / cytokinesis
The cells of the human body can differ in size and shape, and some can even alter their shape. This is an example of cellular diversity. T/F True
A group of cells that have a common origin and function together to perform a specialized group of activities is called a(n) _______. tissue
This tissue covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs of the body such as the stomach and bladder. epithelial tissue
If you wanted to design a tissue that restricted the movement of water and other molecules between adjacent cells, which type of junction would you use to connect the cells? tight junctions
Which type of muscle tissue would have these characteristics: branched cells, usually has one nucleus, has striations (a striped appearance)? cardiac
Which part of a neuron typically receives input? dendrited
Of the basic tissue types, which types have excitable cells? muscle and nervous tissues
Each serous membrane is divided into a parietal layer and a visceral layer. The visceral layer is attached to and lines the wall of the body cavity. T/F False
Tissue regeneration is unlikely to leave a scar if parenchymal cells (the functional cells of the damaged region) are involved with repair. T/F True
Which of the following is not a type of connective tissue? glandular tissue
Which tissue can withstand friction and abrasion? stratified epithelium
Which of the following would be found in the bladder? transitional epithelium
Which of these is avascular? cartilage
The skin is also known as a (the) _________. cutaneous membrane
Which type of epithelium makes up the epidermis? keratinized stratified squamous
The hyponychium is the __________ of the nail. nail bed
Actual growth of the nail occurs in the __________. nail matrix
Which feature(s) of the skin protect(s) us against microbes such as bacteria? -The many layers of keratinized cells form a barrier against microbes -Sebum contains compounds which kill bacteria -Sweat has an acidic pH which suppresses microbial growth -Langerhans cells can alert the immune system should microbes invade
Which of the following would not be a change to the skin that occurs with aging? formation of lanugo
Addition to a thicker stratum corneum and presence of a stratum lucidum, the thick skin of the palms + fingertips of the hands + soles of the feet have a denser array of sense receptors than thinner skin found elsewhere on the body, also is hairless. T/F True
In deep wound healing, an injury has penetrated through to the dermis or even the hypodermis (subcutaneous layer). In this type of wound, the healing process will leave a scar and could involve a loss of some functionality of the area of the wound. T/F True
Wounds that only damage the epidermis won't bleed because the epidermis is avascular. T/F True
Although they appear in the dermis, hair follicles are derived from the epidermis T/F True
Which of the following is arranged in correct order from the most complex to the simplest? organism, system, organ, tissue, cellular, molecular
The quadrants of the abdominopelvic region include all of the following except pelvic quadrant.
The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment in an organism is termed homeostasis.
The stratum corneum just under the free edge of a nail is the cuticle
Cells that are flat and thin are classified as squamous
The plasma membrane is composed of a bilayer of phospholipids.
A cell duplicates its chromosomes during the ________ phase. S
The smallest stable units of matter are atoms
Which pH is closest to normal body pH? pH 7
Created by: vtlove116