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Ch 5 Study Guide

Things to know for Disease and Disease producting organisms

What is disease? Abnormality of the structure or function of a part, organ, or system.
Name several categories of disease. Infectious, degenerative, nutritional, metabolic immune, neoplasms, psychiatric disorders.
What is the definition of a predisposing cause of disease? Factors known to increase one's susceptibility to a specific disease.
List several predisposing causes of disease. Age, gender, heredity, living conditions and lifestyle, emotional disturbance, physical and chemical damage. preexisting illness.
Identify three types of statistics typically collected by epidemiologists. Incidence rate, Prevalence rate, Mortality rate.
What is the identification of an illness called? Diagnosis
What is a symptom? A sign? Disease conditions experienced by the patient, such as pain, fatigue, joint stiffness, or nausea. Sign- objective manifestations such as a rash, a rapid pulse, or wheezing, things that can be observed.
What is the relationship between a parasite and a host? Parasites live on or within a living host at the host's expense.
What is a communicable disease? is one that can be transmitted from one person to another; contagious or catching.
What term describes any disease-causing organism? Pathogen
What are some portals of entry and exit for microorganisms? Mucous membranes of the respiratory , digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Portals of entry can be exit routes as well ( discharges from resp and digestive tracts)
What categories of organisms are studied in microbiology? Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Algae
What term refers to microorganisms that normally live in or on the body? Normal flora
What are resistant forms of bacteria called? Endospores
What are the 3 basic shapes of bacteria? Cocci ( round) Bacilli (rod shaped) and curved rods, including vibrios, spirilla, and spirochetes.
How do viruses differ from bacteria? Viruses are smaller than bacteria, are not cellular, and have no organelles. They contain only DNA or RNA, not both.
What type of organism causes a mycotic infection? A fungus
What group of microorganisms is most animal-like? Protozoa
What is the study of worms called? Helminthology
Name two types of arthropods? Insects and arachnids(spiders and mites)
What are the two levels of asepsis? Sterilization and disinfection
What is the single most important measure for preventing the spread of infection? Handwashing
What is an antibiotic? A substance produced by living cells that has the power to kill or arrest the growth of bacteria.
What are the dyes used to color microorganisms called? Stains
An inadequate diet may result in ________ disorders such as scurvy or rickets. Nutritional
The study of the cause of any disease or the theory of its origin is ______ Etiology
An _______ infection attacks an individual already weakened by disease. Opportunistic
The term for a complex disorder characterized by a cluster of typical symptoms and signs is a _______ syndrome
Certain molds and soil bacteria produce bacteria-killing substances called________ antibiotics
Organisms that can cause Lyme disease, tuberculosis, and gonorrhea bacteria
Organisms that cause AIDS, hepatitis, and influenza viruses
Organisms that cause athlete's foot, ringworm, and thrush. fungi
Organisms that cause amebic dysentery, giardiasis, and malaria protozoa
Organisms that cause pinworm, trichimosis and filariasis helminths
The incidence of early heart disease is higher in men than in women. What is the predisposing cause of the disease in this example? Gender
What is a prognosis? A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease.
Which of the following statements best describes an iatrogenic disease? it results from the adverse effects of treatment
What enables some bacteria to swim rapidly? flagella
Which protozoa are all obligate parasites? apicomplexans
Which of the following are examples of arthropods? insects, spiders and mites
What is meant by the virulence of an organism? its ability to cause disease
Created by: Jessica Venyke



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