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anatomy CH2


acid compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
activation energy amount of energy greater than the energy contained in the reactants, which must be overcome for a reaction to proceed
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) nucleotide containing ribose and an adenine base that is essential in energy transfer
amino acid building block of proteins; characterized by an amino and carboxyl functional groups and a variable side-chain
anion atom with a negative charge
atom smallest unit of an element that retains the unique properties of that element
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
base compound that accepts hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
bond electrical force linking atoms
buffer solution containing a weak acid or a weak base that opposes wide fluctuations in the pH of body fluids
carbohydrate class of organic compounds built from sugars, molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1-2-1 ratio
catalyst substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed in the process
cation atom with a positive charge
chemical energy form of energy that is absorbed as chemical bonds form, stored as they are maintained, released as they are broken
colloid liquid mixture in which the solute particles consist of clumps of molecules large enough to scatter light
compound substance composed of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
concentration number of particles within a given space
covalent bond chemical bond in which two atoms share electrons, thereby completing their valence shells
decomposition reaction type of catabolic reaction in which one or more bonds within a larger molecule are broken, resulting in the release of smaller molecules or atoms
denaturation change in the structure of a molecule through physical or chemical means
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) deoxyribose-containing nucleotide that stores genetic information
disaccharide pair of carbohydrate monomers bonded by dehydration synthesis via a glycosidic bond
disulfide bond covalent bond formed within a polypeptide between sulfide groups of sulfur-containing amino acids, for example, cysteine
electron subatomic particle having a negative charge and nearly no mass; found orbiting the atom's nucleus
electron shell area of space a given distance from an atom's nucleus in which electrons are grouped
element substance that cannot be created or broken down by ordinary chemical means
enzyme protein or RNA that catalyzes chemical reactions
exchange reaction type of chemical reaction in which bonds are both formed and broken, resulting in the transfer of components
functional group group of atoms linked by strong covalent bonds that tends to behave as a distinct unit in chemical reactions with other atoms
hydrogen bond dipole-dipole bond in which a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is weakly attracted to a second electronegative atom
inorganic compound substance that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen
ion atom with an overall positive or negative charge
ionic bond attraction between an anion and a cation
isotope one of the variations of an element in which the number of neutrons differ from each other
kinetic energy energy that matter possesses because of its motion
lipid class of nonpolar organic compounds built from hydrocarbons and distinguished by the fact that they are not soluble in water
macromolecule large molecule formed by covalent bonding
mass number sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
matter physical substance; that which occupies space and has mass
molecule two or more atoms covalently bonded together
monosaccharide monomer of carbohydrate; also known as a simple sugar
neutron heavy subatomic particle having no electrical charge and found in the atom's nucleus
neucleotide class of organic compounds composed of one or more phosphate groups, a pentose sugar, and a base
organic compound substance that contains both carbon and hydrogen
peptide bond covalent bond formed by dehydration synthesis between two amino acids
periodic table of the elements arrangement of the elements in a table according to their atomic number; elements having similar properties because of their electron arrangements compose columns in the table, while elements having the same number of valence shells compose rows
pH negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration of a solution
phospholipid a lipid compound in which a phosphate group is combined with a diglyceride
phosphorylation addition of one or more phosphate groups to an organic compound
polar molecule molecule with regions that have opposite charges resulting from uneven numbers of electrons in the nuclei of the atoms participating in the covalent bond
polysaccharide compound consisting of more than two carbohydrate monomers bonded by dehydration synthesis via glycosidic bonds
potential energy stored energy matter possesses because of the positioning or structure of its components
product one or more substances produced by a chemical reaction
prostaglandin lipid compound derived from fatty acid chains and important in regulating several body processes
protein class of organic compounds that are composed of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
proton heavy subatomic particle having a positive charge and found in the atom's nucleus
purine nitrogen-containing base with a double ring structure; adenine and guanine
pyrimidine nitrogen-containing base with a single ring structure; cytosine, thiamine, and uracil
radioactive isotope unstabe, heavy isotope that gives off subatomic particles, or electromagnetic energy, as it decays; also called radioisotopes
reactant one or more substances that enter into the reaction
ribonucleic acid (RNA) ribose-containing nucleotide that helps manifest the genetic code as protein
solution homogeneous liquid mixture in which a solute is dissolved into molecules within a solvent
steroid/sterol lipid compound composed of four hydrocarbon rings bonded to a variety of other atoms and molecules
substrate reactant in an enzymatic reaction
suspension liquid mixture in which particles distributed in the liquid settle out over time
synthesis reaction type of anabolic reaction in which two or more atoms or molecules bond, resulting in the formation of a larger molecule
triglyceride lipid compound composed of a glycerol molecule bonded with three fatty acid chains
valence shell outermost electron shell of an atom
heavy isotope an isotope that contains more than the usual number of neutrons
half-life the time it takes for half of any size sample of an isotope to decay
octet rule states that an atom will give up, gain, or share electrons with another atom so that it ends up with eight electrons in its own valence shell
electrically neutral when an atom has the same number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons
single covalent bond a single electron is shared between two atoms
double covalent bond two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
triple covalent bond three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
partial charges occurs in an ionic bond and the strength of the charge is less than one full electron
metabolism the sum of all of the chemical reactions that go on to maintain an organism's health and life
anabolic chemical reactions form larger molecules from smaller molecules or atoms
catabolic chemical reactions bonds between components of larger molecules break, releasing smaller molecules or atoms
exergonic reactions chemical reactions that release more energy than they absorb
mechanical energy directly powers the movement of matter
radiant energy energy emitted and transmitted as waves rather than matter
electromagnetic spectrum the full spectrum of radiant energy
electrical energy supplied by electrolytes in cells and body fluids; contributes to the voltage changes that help transmit impulses in nerve and muscle cells
heat sink a substance or object that absorbs and dissipates heat but does not experience a corresponding increase in temperature
mixture a combination of two or more substances, each of which maintains its own chemical identity
homogeneous important characteristic of solutions, the solute molecules are distributed evenly throughout the solution
hydrophilic water-loving
hydrophobic water-fearing
molarity the concentration of a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
mole of an element its atomic weight
mole of a compound the sum of the atomic weights of its components, called the molecular weight
Avogadro's number a mole of any solution has the same number of particles in it: 6.02x10^23
sedimentation separation of particles from a suspension
dehydration synthesis refers to the formation of larger molecules from smaller reactants, accompanied by the loss of a water molecule.
condensation reaction two functional groups combine to form a covalent bond along with the release of a small molecule such as water
hydrolysis the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water
carbon skeleton the chain of carbon atoms that forms the "backbone" or foundation, of any organic molecule
hydrocarbons compound of hydrogen and carbon
monomer molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer
saccharides another term for sugar
glycosidic bond a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate molecule to another group
emulsion the term for a mixture of solutions that do not mix well
saturated fatty acids fatty acid chains that have no double carbon bonds anywhere along their length and therefore contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
trans fats are created from unsaturated fatty acids when chemically treated to produce partially hydrogenated fats
glycolipids sugar-fat compounds found in the cell membrane
lipoproteins compounds in which the hydrophobic triglycerides are packaged in protein envelopes for transport in body fluids
diglyceride a glycerol with just two fatty acid chains
peptide a very short chain of amino acids
polypeptides a very short chain of amino acids containing fewer than 100 amino acids
essential amino acids nine amino acids that cannot be synthesized and have to be consumed in the diet
elongated proteins called fibrous proteins; are strong and durable and typically hydrophobic
globular proteins globes or spheres that tend to be highly reactive and are hydrophilic
enzymatic reactions chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes; begin when substrates bind to an enzyme
messanger RNA (mRNA) created during protein synthesis to carry the genetic instructions from the DNA to the cell's protein manufacturing plants in the cytoplasm, the ribosomes
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide that is composed of a ribose sugar, an adenine base, and three phosphate groups; is classified as a high energy compound because the two covalent bonds linking its three phosphates store a significant amount of potential energy
Created by: jennw



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