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anatomy CH3


active transport form of transport across the cell membrane that requires input of cellular energy
amphipathic describes a molecule that exhibits a difference in polarity between its two ends, resulting in a difference in water solubility
anaphase third stage of mitosis(and meiosis), during which sister chromatids separate into two new nuclear regions of a dividing cell
anticodon consecutive sequence of three nucleotides on a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a specific codon on an mRNA molecule
autolysis breakdown of cells by their own enzymatic action
autophagy lysosomal breakdown of a cell's own components
cell cycle life cycle of a single cell, from its birth until its division into two new daughter cells
cell membrane membrane surrounding all animal cells, composed of a lipid bilayer interspersed with various molecules; also known as plasma membrane
centriole small, self-replicating organelle that provides the origin for microtubule growth and moves DNA during cell division
centromere region of attachment for two sister chromatids
centrosome cellular structure that organizes microtubules during cell division
channel protein membrane-spanning protein that has an inner pore which allows the passage of one or more substances
checkpoint progress point in the cell cycle during which certain conditions must be met in order for the cell to proceed to a subsequence phase
chromatin substance consisting of DNA and associated proteins
chromosome condensed version of chromatin
cilia small appendage on certain cells formed by microtubules and modified for movement of materials across the cellular surface
cleavage furrow contractile ring that forms around a cell during cytokinesis that pinches the cell into two halves
codon consecutive sequence of three nucleotides on an mRNA molecule that corresponds to a specific amino acid
concentration gradient difference in the concentration of a substance between two regions
cyclin one of a group of proteins that function in the progression of the cell cycle
cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) one of a group of enzymes associated with cyclins that help them perform their functions
cytokinesis final stage in cell division, where the cytoplasm divides to form two separate daughter cells
cytoplasm internal material between the cell membrane and nucleus of a cell, mainly consisting of a water-based fluid called cytosol, within which are all the other organelles and cellular solute and suspended materials
cytoskeleton "skeleton" of a cell; formed by rod-like proteins that support the cell's shape and provide, among other functions, locomotive abilities
cytosol clear, semi-fluid medium of the cytoplasm, made up mostly of water
diffusion movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
diploid condition marked by the presence of a double complement of genetic material (two sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each of two parents)
DNA polymerase enzyme that functions in adding new nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA during DNA replication
DNA replication process of duplicating a molecule of DNA
electrical gradient difference in the electrical charge (potential) between two regions
endocytosis import of material into the cell by formation of a membrane-bound vesicle
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cellular organelle that consists of interconnected membrane-bound tubules, which may or may not be associated with ribosomes (rough type or smooth type, respectively)
exocytosis export of a substance out of a cell by formation of a membrane-bound vesicle
exon one of the coding regions of an mRNA molecule that remain after splicing
extracellular fluid (ECF) fluid exterior to cells;includes the interstitial fluid, blood plasma, and fluid found in other reservoirs in the body
facilitated diffusion diffusion of a substance with the aid of a membrane protein
flagellum appendage on certain cells formed by microtubules and modified for movement
G 0 phase phase of the cell cycle, usually entered from the G1 phase; characterized by long or permanent periods where the cell does not move forward into the DNA synthesis phase
G1 phase first phase of the cell cycle, after a new cell is born
G2 phase third phase of the cell cycle, after the DNA synthesis phase
gene functional length of DNA that provides the genetic information necessary to build a protein
gene expression active interpretation of the information coded in a gene to produce a functional gene product
genome entire complement of an organism's DNA; found within virtually every cell
glycocalyx coating of sugar molecules that surrounds the cell membrane
glycoprotein protein that has one or more carbohydrates attached
Golgi apparatus cellular organelle formed by a series of flattened, membrane-bound sacs that functions in protein modification, tagging, packaging, and transport
helicase enzyme that functions to separate the two DNA strands of a double helix during DNA replication
histone family of proteins that associate with DNA in the nucleus to form chromatin
homologous describes two copies of the same chromosome (not identical), one inherited from each parent
hydrophilic describes a substance or structure attracted to water
hydrophobic describes a substance or structure repelled by water
hypertonic describes a solution concentration that is higher than a reference concentration
hypotonic describes a solution concentration that is lower than a reference concentration
integral protein membrane-associated protein that spans the entire width of the lipid bilayer
intermediate filament type of cytoskeletal filament made of keratin, characterized by an intermediate thickness, and playing a role in resisting cellular tension
interphase entire life cycle of a cell, excluding mitosis
interstitial fluid (IF) fluid in the small spaces between cells not contained within blood vessels
intracellular fluid (ICF) fluid in the cytosol of cells
intron non-coding regions of a pre-mRNA transcript that may be removed during splicing
isotonic describes a solution concentration that is the same as a reference concentration
kinetochore region of a centromere where microtubules attach to a pair of sister chromatids
ligand molecule that binds with specificity to a specific receptor molecule
lysosome membrane-bound cellular organelle originating from the Golgi apparatus and containing digestive enzymes
messanger RNA (mRNA) nucleotide molecule that serves as an intermediate in the genetic code between DNA and protein
metaphase second stage of mitosis (and meiosis), characterized by the linear alignment of sister chromatids in the center of the cell
metaphase plate linear alignment of sister chromatids in the center of the cell, which takes place during metaphase
microfilament the thinnest of the cytoskeletal filaments; composed of actin subunits that function in muscle contraction and cellular structural support
microtubule the thickest of the cyytoskeletal filaments, composed of tubulin subunits that function in cellular movement and structural support
mitochondrion one of the cellular organelles bound by a double lipid bilayer that function primarily in the production of cellular energy (ATP)
mitosis division of genetic material, during which the cell nucleus breaks down and two new, fully functional, nuclei are formed
mitotic phase phase of the cell cycle in which a cell undergoes mitosis
mitotic spindle network of microtubules, originating from centrioles, that arranges and pulls apart chromosomes during mitosis
multipotent describes the condition of being able to differentiate into different types of cells within a given cell lineage or small number of lineages, such as red blood cell or white blood cell
mutation change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene within a cell's DNA
nuclear envelope membrane that surrounds the nucleus; consisting of a double lipid-bilayer
nuclear pore one of the small, protein-lined openings found scattered throughout the nuclear envelope
nucleolus small region of the nucleus that functions in ribosome synthesis
nucleosome unit of chromatin consisting of a DNA strand wrapped around histone proteins
nucleus cell's central organelle; contains the cell's DNA
oligopotent describes the condition of being more specialized than multipotency; the condition of being able to differentiate into one of a few possible cell types
organelle any of several different types of membrane-enclosed specialized structures in the cell that perform specific functions for the cell
osmosis diffusion of water molecules down their concentration gradient across a selectively permeable membrane
passive transport form of transport across the cell membrane that does not require input of cellular energy
peripheral protein membrane-associated protein that does not span the width of the lipid bilayer, but is attached peripherally to integral proteins, membrane lipids, or other components of the membrane
peroxisome membrane-bound organelle that contains enzymes primarily responsible for detoxifying harmful substances
phagocytosis endocytosis of large particles
pinocytosis endocytosis of fluid
pluripotent describes the condition of being able to differentiate into a large variety of cell types
polypeptide chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
polyribosome simultaneous translation of a single mRNA transcript by multiple ribosomes
promoter region of DNA that signals transcription to begin at that site within the gene
prophase first stage of mitosis (and meiosis), characterized by breakdown of the nuclear envelope and condensing of the chromatin to form chromosomes
proteome full complement of proteins produced by a cell (determined by the cell's specific gene expression)
reactive oxygen species (ROS) a group of extremely reactive peroxides and oxygen-containing radicals that may contribute to cellular damage
receptor protein molecule that contains a binding site for another specific molecule (called a ligand)
receptor-mediated endocytosis endocytosis of ligands attached to membrane-bound receptors
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) RNA that makes up the subunits of a ribosome
ribosome cellular organelle that functions in protein synthesis
RNA polymerase enzyme that unwinds DNA and then adds new nucleotides to a growing strand of RNA for the transcription phase of protein synthesis
S phase stage of the cell cycle during which DNA replication occurs
selective permeability feature of any barrier that allows certain substances to cross but excludes others
sister chromatid one of a pair of identical chromosomes, formed during DNA replication
sodium-potassium pump membrane-embedded protein pump that uses ATP to move Na+ out of a cell and K+ into the cell
somatic cell all cells of the body excluding gamete cells
spliceosome complex of enzymes that serves to splice out the introns of a pre-mRNA transcript
splicing the process of modifying a pre-mRNA transcript by removing certain, typically non-coding, regions
stem cell cell that is oligo-, multi-, or pleuripotent that has the ability to produce additional stem cells rather than becoming further specialized
telophase final stage of mitosis (and meiosis), preceding cytokinesis, characterized by the formation of two new daughter nuclei
totipotent embryonic cells that have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell and organ in the body
transcription process of producing an mRNA molecule that is complementary to a particular gene of DNA
transcription factor one of the proteins that regulate the transcription of genes
transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules of RNA that serve to bring amino acids to a growing polypeptide strand and properly place them into the sequence
translation process of producing a protein from the nucleotide sequence code of an mRNA transcript
triplet consecutive sequence of three nucleotides on a DNA molecule that, when transcribed into an mRNA codon, corresponds to a particular amino acid
unipotent describes the condition of being commited to a single specialized cell type
vesicle membrane-bound structure that contains materials within or outside of the cell
homeostasis a term used in biology that refers to a dynamic state of balance within parameters that are compatible with life
cell recognition proteins important group of proteins which serve to mark a cell's identity so that it can be recognized by other cells
filtration mechanism to passively transport materials between compartments; uses a hydrostatic pressure gradient that pushes fluid-and solutes within it-from a higher pressure area to a lower pressure area
secondary active transport the action of an active transport pump powers the passive transport of sodium ions by creating a concentration gradient; when active transport powers the trans port of another substance
symporters secondary active transporters that move two substances in the same direction
antiporters secondary active transport systems that transport substances in opposite directions
endomembrane system a set of three major organelles-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and vesicles- working together to perform various cellular jobs, including the task of producing, packaging, and exporting certain cellular products
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) primary job is the synthesis and modification of proteins destined for the cell membrane or for export from the cell; its membrane is dotted with embedded granules-organelles called ribosomes, giving the RER a bumpy appearance
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) main function is in the synthesis of lipids; sequesters and regulates the concentration of cellular Ca++; metabolizes some carbohydrates and performs a detoxification role, breaking down certain toxins; lacks the ribosomes of RER
apoptosis controlled cell death process
oxidative stress term used to describe damage to cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS)
actin a protein that forms chains; the primary component of microfilaments; important role during cell division, actin filaments work with myosin to create a cleavage furrow that eventually splits the cell down the middle, forming two new cells
differentation the process by which unspecialized cells become specialized to carry out distinct functions
Created by: jennw



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