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anatomy CH1

Term/Definition

TermDefinition
anatomy the scientific study of the body's structures
gross anatomy the study of the larger structures of the body, visible without the aid of magnification
macroscopic anatomy also known as gross anatomy, study of the larger structures of the body
microscopic anatomy the study of structures that can be observed only with the use of a microscope or other magnification device
cytology the study of cells
histology the study of tissues
regional anatomy the study of the interrelationships of all of the structures in a specific body region
systemic anatomy the study of the structures that make up a discrete body system
physiology the scientific study of the chemistry and physics of the structures of the body and the ways in which they work together to support the functions of life
homeostasis the state of steady internal conditions maintained by living things
neurophysiology the study of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves and how these work together to perform functions as complex and diverse as vision, movement, and thinking
cell the smallest independently functioning unit of a living organism
cytoplasm consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus and enclosed within the cell membrane of a cell, a clear gel-like appearance composed mainly of water, but also contains enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules
organelle a tiny cellular structure that performs specific functions within a cell, embedded within the cytoplasm of a cell
tissue a group of many similar cells that work together to perform a specific function
organ an anatomically distinct structure of the body composed of two or more tissue types
organ system a group of organs that work together to perform major functions or meet physiological needs of the body
organism a living being that has a cellular structure and that can independently perform all physiologic functions necessary for life
anabolism the process whereby smaller, simpler molecules are combined into larger, more complex substances
catabolism the process by which larger more complex substances are broken down into smaller simpler molecules
metabolism the sum of all anabolic and catabolic reactions that take place in the body
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a complex organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency"
responsiveness the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its internal and external environments
development all of the changes the body goes through in life
differentiation the process in which unspecialized cells become specialized in structure and function to perform certain tasks in the body
growth the increase in body size
reproduction the formation of a new organism from parent organisms
nutrient a substance in foods and beverages that is essential to human survival
macronutrient a type of food required in large amounts in the diet
micronutrient a substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development of living organisms
pressure a force exerted by a substance that is in contact with another substance
atmospheric pressure pressure exerted by the mixture of gases(primarily nitrogen and oxygen) in the Earth's atmosphere
decompression sickness (DCS) a condition in which gases dissolved in the blood or in other body tissues are no longer dissolved following a reduction in pressure on the body, brought about by a reduction in barometric pressure
blood pressure the pressure exerted by blood as it flows within blood vessels
set point the physiological value around which the normal range fluctuates
normal range the restricted set of values that is optimally healthful and stable
negative feedback a mechanism that reverses a deviation from the set point, maintains body parameters within their normal range
sensor also known as a receptor, a component of a feedback system that monitors a physiological value
control center the component in a feedback system that compares the value to the normal range
effector the component in a feedback system that causes a change to reverse the situation and return the value to the normal range
positive feedback intensifies a change in the body's physiological condition rather than reversing it, normal only when there is a definite end point
prone describes a face-down orientation
supine describes a face-up orientation
anterior/ventral describes the front or direction toward the front of the body
posterior/dorsal describes the back or direction toward the back of the body
superior/cranial describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper
inferior/caudal describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper, near or toward the lowest part of the spinal column
lateral describes the side or direction toward the side of the body
medial describes the middle or direction toward the middle of the body
proximal describes a position in a limb that is nearer to the point of attachment or the trunk of the body
distal describes a position in a limb that is farther from the point of attachment or the trunk of the body
superficial describes a position closer to the surface of the body
deep describes a position farther from the surface of the body
section a two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional structure that has been cut
plane an imaginary two-dimensional surface that passes through the body
sagittal plane the plane that divides the body or an organ vertically into right and left sides
median plane/midsagittal vertical plane that runs directly down the middle of the body
parasagittal plane vertical plane that divides the body into unequal right and left sides, also called a longitudinal section
frontal plane the plane that divides the body or an organ into an anterior portion and a posterior portion, also called a coronal plane
transverse plane the plane that divides the body or organ horizontally into upper and lower portions
dorsal/posterior cavity located along the dorsal surface of the human body, where it is subdivided into the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity
ventral/anterior cavity located in the anterior aspect of the body, it is made up of the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
cranial cavity the main cavity of the skull, it lodges the brain, meninges, portions of the cranial nerves and blood vessels
spinal cavity the cavity that contains the spinal cord within the vertebral column, formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes
thoracic cavity the chamber of the body of vertebrates that is protected by the thoracic wall, the more superior subdivision of the anterior cavity
abdominopelvic cavity the largest cavity of the body, consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
serous membrane/serosa one of the thin membranes that cover the walls and organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
pleura the serous membrane that surrounds the lungs in the pleural cavity
pericardium the serous membrane that surrounds the heart in the pericardial cavity
peritoneum the serous membrane that surrounds several organs in the abdominopelvic cavity
pleural cavity reduces friction between the lungs and the body wall
pericardial cavity reduces friction between the heart and the wall of the pericardium
peritoneal cavity reduces friction between the abdominal and pelvic organs and the body wall
x-ray a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation with a short wavelength capable of penetrating solids and ionizing gases
computed tomography (CT) a noninvasive imaging technique that uses computers to analyze several cross-sectional x-rays in order to reveal minute details about structures in the body
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a noninvasive medical imaging technique based on a phenomenon of nuclear physics discovered in the 1930s, in which matter exposed to magnetic fields and radio waves was found to emit radio signals
positron emission tomography (PET) a medical imaging technique involving the use of so-called radiopharmaceuticals, can illustrate physiologic activity-including nutrient metabolism and blood flow-of the organ or organs being targeted
ultrasonography an imaging technique that uses the transmission of high-frequency sound waves into the body to generate an echo signal that is converted by a computer into a real-time image of anatomy and physiology
intermediate between a more medial and more lateral structure
parietal pertaining to the wall of a body cavity
visceral pertaining to the covering of an organ
ipsilateral on the same side of the body
contralateral on the opposite side of the body
axial division the central part of the body and includes the head, neck, and trunk
appendicular division includes the upper and lower limbs
diaphragm a muscular partition that separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
mediastinum a centrally located region which contains the pericardial cavity surrounding the heart and the thoracic portions of the aorta, trachea, and esophagus
Created by: jennw