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What are the hallmarks of acute inflammation rxn? Blood vessel dialation, leukocyte accumulation, Exudation
What does blood vessel dialation achieve and what is it called? slows blood flow and is called hypermia
What is exudation? Accumulation of fluid in extravascular tissue
Following and injury like a bad burn, what is the fluid filled space formed between epidermis and dermis called? a fluid filled bulla
Vascular permeability caused by inflammation manifest as what? Serous, fibrinous and suppurative inflammation
What is the difference between exudate and transudate? exudate has more protein than transudate
What sort of conditions cause serous inflammation? varicella, herpes simplex virus, burns, pleural, pericardial and peritoneal effusions related to viral infections, the common blister, tuberculous pleuritis, and pericarditis
Normal outcome of serous inflammation? Exudate is removed (reabsorbed) and normal function is restored
What is fibrinous inflammation fibrin deposition is dominant
Examples of fibrinous inflammation uremic pericarditis, cardiac surgery, pericardis accompanying acute myocardial infarction
Fibrinous or serous inflammation: which happens with a more extensive injury? fibrinous
Describe the consequences of inflammation of the pericardial sac The inflammation causes the parietal and visceral surgaces of the roughened pericardium to rub against each other, producing an extracardiac sound- this is known as pericardial friction rub.
Describe the two outcomes of fibrinous inflammation 1) fribrinous exudate is removed by fibrinolysis and normal function is restored 2) Scar tissue forms because fibrin is not removed for an extended period. Fibroblasts & blood vessels grow & deposit collagen (scar tissue). Loss of function ensues.
What is suppurative inflammation? Large amount of pus produced
What is another name for suppurative inflammation purulent inflammation
What is another name for pus? purulent exudate
What is pus? thick creamy fluid of intact and disintegrating neutrophils (a type of leukocyte) within a background of fragmented and liquified tissue elements.
When pus is green, what is the reason High myeloperoxidase levels in the neutrophils
Pus is an example of what type of necrosis? liquefactive
Examples of suppurative inflammation pus, abscess, phegmon
What is an abscess? localized collection of pus due to suppurative inflammation, typically this inflammation is caused by a pyogenic bacteria
What is a pyogenic membrane A membrane that surrounds the abscess walling it off from the rest of the world
What is phlegmon? Diffuse supparative inflammation in the connective tissue. It has poorly defined margins and therefore it is rapidly spreading
Give two examples of phelgmon Cellulitis and acute appendicitis
What is an empyema? A collection of pus within a naturally existing anatomical cavity like the pleura
Difference between an empyema and abscess Empyema are in a natural anatomical cavity whereas an abscess is in a newly created cavity
What is a parapneumonic pleural effusion? buildup of pleural fluid which develops in the setting of pneumonia
What is a thoracentesis A chest tube that is used to treat a parapneumonic pleural effusion-gets rid of the fluid, as long as its flowing
What is a thoractomy? procedure in which chest is opened and the now thick fluid is removed in addition to peeling the thick rid of infectious maturial off the pleura
What is hemorrhagic inflammation? type of fibrinous inflammation where small blood vessel damage severe enough to let RBCs from the lumen to escape into the extravascular space
What conditions are marked by hemorrhagic inflammation anthrax, some, viral conditions like influenza pneumonia, rickettisial typhus and rocky mountain spotted fever
What is catarrhal inflammation? mucous membranes are inflammed. first is serous in nature, but then profuse discharge of mucous occurs. Examples: common cold, hey fever, rhinitis, bronchitis, pharyngitis, and asthma
What is an ulcer? local defect or excavation of the surface mucosa of an organ that is made by the sloughing shedding of necrotic inflammatory tissue.
Color of serrous exudate Clear, strawlike yellow
What are the systemic effects of inflammation? fever, acute phase proteins, acceleration of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and leukocytosis
What are pyrogens substances that illicit fever by stimulating prostaglandin synthesis in vascular and perivascular cells of the hypothalamus
How do NSAIDS like aspirin reduce fever? inhibit PG synthesis
Role of acute phase proteins is what? bind to microbial cell walls potentially acting as opsonins that fix complement; bind to chromatin,potentially helping get rid of necrotic nuclei,
What is the effect of prolonged production of acute phase proteins? Amyloidosis, a lethal disease
What is ESR and what does it do? Erythrocyte settling rate that measures how fast RBCS settle downward in a tube
What's the use of ESR Screening test (not Dx) for inflammation. Faster ESR=inflammation
What is leukocytosis? Too many white blood cells
What is leulopenia Too few blood cells
What is leukocytosis often found in? inflammation rxns
Neutrophilia is what? Increase in neutrophil blood count
What is lymphocytosis? An increase in number of lymphocytes
What causes lymphocytosis Viral infections, i.e mono, mumps, measles,
What conditions are marked by eosinophilia? bronchial asthma, allergy, and parasitic infestations
What conditions have leukopenia? disseminated cancer, rampant tb, severe alcoholism
Created by: VCOM2013