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What is the function of urinary system? 1. filter for blood 2.remove wastes and excess water
Normal genitourinary tract is ? Sterile, except distal urethra
Which parts belong to lower UTI? Bladder, urethra
Which parts belong to upper UTI? Kidneys, ureters
What are the common lower UTIs? Cystitis, Dysuria
What are the common upper UTIs? Pyelonephritis(bladder infection),
In hospitals, high incidence of UTI mainly due to? catheterisation
What are the common pathogens related to UTI? E.coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Stap. aureus, Stap. saprophyticus, Enterococcus
What are the normal flora in UT? Diphtheroids, Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus spp., Coagulase negative staphylococci other than Staphylococcus saprophyticus
What are the specimens for the lab diagnosis of UTI? 1.Mid stream urine: Preferred for culture and sensitivity testing due to the reduced(MSU) 2.Cathetherized urine(CSU) 3.Suprapubic aspirate (SU) 4.Urine bag 5.Early morning specimen (EMU)
What are the culture materials for UT samples? 1.Chromogenic agar 2,MacConkey agar 3.Cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) agar 4.Blood agar
What is chromogenic agar? 1.Allows direct identification of the commonest urinary pathogens 2.Bacterial enzymes with different substrates to produce colored colonies.
If for culture, need __________ for urine collection? Sterile bottle
Transport to lab immediately, or refrigerated, or use preservative ________? Boric acid
What is the example of chromogenic agar? Oxoid Brilliance UTI agar
What is Oxoid Brilliance agar? non-selective, differential agar
What is Cystein Lactose Electroylete Deficient agar(CLED)? 1.differential 2.electrolyte removed 3.allows growth of most urinary pathogens
How identify lactose and non-lactose fermenter? Lactose fermenter: Yellow Non-lactose fermenter: White/colourless
MSU sample will be followed up if ? 1.≥10^5 colony forming units (CFU)/ml, means significant growth 2.only one organism present
There is a follow up if _______________ from Suprapubic urine? any growth
How to treat UTI? Cotrimoxazole or Ciprofloxacin or Nitrofurantoin
What does routine microscopic urine analysis observe? 1.WBC, RBC, Epithelial cells 2.hyaline cast, granular cast, cellular cast 3.Crystals, like calcium oxalate, uric acid 4.Microorganisms, like Trichomonas vaginalis
What biochemical tests could be done on urine? 1.Protein - indicates infection 2.Nitrate reduction - indicate presence of bacteria 3.Leucocyte Esterase - presence of WBC 4.Glucose - decrease during infection
Created by: kencho



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