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Is widely distributed in the external environment. It may be found in 20 to 40% of the anterior nares of human adults. It also colonizes the skin, particularly in intertriginous areas such as the groin and axilla, and may be found in the vaginal canal Staphylococcus aureus epidemiology
Was discovered more than 100 years ago by Hans Christian Gram. Crystal violet-primary stain. Gram's iodine-mordant to fix the dye. GP Bacteria retain the dye in cell wall. Acid alcohol-decolorizer. GN bacteria stain red Safranin-counterstain. The Gram stain
Is a basic fluorochrome dye that binds nonspecifically to nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, and glycosaminoglycans. AO is useful in demonstrating bacteria in specimens where concentrations may be low. Acridine orange
Catalase, Coagulase, Dnase, PYR, Nonmotile, Salt tolerance all + Staphylococcus aureus
Penicillin and cephalosporin (1st generation) Drug of choice for Staphylococcus aureus, Strep pneumo
Is the most frequently isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci from human sources. Staphylococcus epidermidis
Does not ferment mannitol, produces alkaline phosphatase, produces positive reactions for acetoin (Voges Proskauer), reduces nitrates to nitrites, and hydrolyzes urea. Acid is produced from maltose, fructose, sucrose, and mannose. S. epidermidis
Penicillin Drug of choice for Staphylococcus epidermidis
Has a particular predilection for causing urinary tract infections in young, healthy, sexually active females. Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Has its natural habitat as part of the normal nasal and skin flora of various domestic animals, including dogs, cats, and horses. It is the most common coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species recovered from the skin of dogs. Staphylococcus intermedius
Resistance to novobiocin is a key feature used in the presumptive identification of S. saprophyticus
Is among the most commonly recovered bacterial species in the clinical laboratory. It is the cause of classic streptococcal pharyngitis, colloquially known as "strep throat." Streptococcus pyogenes
Diseases include scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, endocarditis, and nephritis. Poststreptococcal
Small transparent colonies/wide zone of beta hemolysis. ID-Low conc of bacitracin (0.04 μg)/PYR +. Group A streptococci
Group B-specific antigen. Metabolism is fermentative with lactic acid produced as the chief end product. Narrow zone of beta hemolysis. + cAMP reaction/ hydrolyzes NA hippurate Streptococcus agalactiae
Infections include meningitis, pneumonia, polynephritis, sepsis including endocarditis/in women, puerperal infection assctd w/ abortion and premature labor. Neonatal sepsis and meningitis Streptococcus agalactiae
Penicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporin 1st gen, erythromycin S. pyo
Penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalosporin 1st gen, erythromycin S. agalactiae
2 species: S. bovis and S. equi. ID by + esculin hydrolysis in bile-esculin agar and by the inability to grow in 6.5% sodium chloride Group D streptococci
Can be divided into one of 83 different capsular serotypes(Latex agg, coagg, or the Neufeld quellung rxn)3, 4, 14, and 19, are particularly virulent. The capsular material prevents phagocytosis and killing by the host phagocytic cells. Strep pnuemo
Alpha hemolytic and smooth, moist, or mucoid/"checker piece" appearance/ susceptibile to either bile or ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride (Optochin) Strep pnuemo
Lobar type pneumonia and bacterial meningitis in adults, infants, and toddlers. Diabetes and alcoholism are common conditions predisposing to serious pneumococcal infections. Strep pnuemo
Is the most important agent of diarrheal disease in humans. C. jejuni
1."campy" agar to inhibit the overgrowth of the normal intestinal flora. 2.42°C, the optimum temperature for growth of this organism. 3.incubation atmosphere, consisting of 5% oxygen, 10% CO2, and 85% nitrogen. C. jejuni
Is infrequently recovered from human sources but is an important cause of infective abortion in cattle and sheep. It can be recovered from the placentas and stomach contents of the fetuses of aborted sheep and cattle. C. fetus
Human infections that have been reported virtually always affect an individual who is debilitated, has compromised immune function, has a neoplastic disease, or has a chronic underlying disorder such as renal or hepatic failure. C. fetus
Does not hydrolyze indoxyl acetate or sodium hippurate. It is susceptible to cephalothin but resistant to nalidixic acid, profiles opposite to that of C. jejuni. Will not grow on campy selective media containing cephalothin. Does not grow at 42°C C. fetus
Erythromycin Drug of choice for C. fetus and C. jejuni
Is one of several spiral-shaped bacteria that have been observed in gastric secretions. Can be recovered from the GI tract of humans and a variety of domestic and wild animals, including several species of birds. Helicobacter pylori
Diagnosis: visualize the thin, curved bacterial cells in histologic sections of gastric biopsy material or by demonstrating the rapid conversion of urea agar after implantation with a small portion of the biopsy. Helicobacter pylori
+ rxns may be observed in as little as 1 hour. Cultures are not frequently attempted to establish a diagnosis. Helicobacter pylori
Incubation environments with reduced O (5-10%), increased CO2 (5-10%), and increased H (5-10%) at 37°C are the optimum conditions. Although selective "campy" agar may be used, a formulation devoid of cephalothin is necessary. Helicobacter pylori
Can be suspected when GNDC or D-CB are observed in Gram stains. MacConkey growth (pinkish tinge). Lack of motility, absence of cytochrome oxidase activity, inability to reduce nitrates to nitrites, and resistance to penicillin. Acinetobacter baumannii
Nosocomial infections most commonly involve the respiratory tract, the urinary tract, the genital tract, peritonitis in patients receiving continuous peritoneal dialysis, and postsurgical wounds. Acinetobacter baumannii
Carbenicillin, Cephalosporin 2nd or 3rd, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, SXT Acinetobacter baumannii
GN nonfermenters that grow on Mac, oxidase +, and motile via peritrichous flagella. Synonymous with A. odorans/ apple odor/ green discoloration. asaccharolytic Alcaligenes faecalis
Exist in soil and water/ Blood, sputum, and urine are the most common sources and are often associated with nosocomial infections, nebulizers, respirators, and lavage fluids. Alcaligenes faecalis
Exist in soil and water/ Blood, sputum, and urine are the most common sources and are often associated with nosocomial infections, nebulizers, respirators, and lavage fluids. Alcaligenes faecalis
Pipericillin and tircarcillin clavulanate Drug of choice for Alcaligenes faecalis
Inhabiting the epithelial cells in the upper respiratory tract only of man, to which the bacterial cells attach, invade, and survive. Highly contagious, transmitted from human to human via contaminated airborne respiratory droplets. Bordetella pertussis
Apple-green fluorescing using the direct Ab fluorescent test. Potato-based Bordet Gengou (BG) agar; or, charcoal horse blood agar of Regan Lowe. Bordetella pertussis
Each neutralize the effects of the fatty acids, metalic ions, and peroxidases also contained in the media. Growth require 2 - 4 days/ 35o C. 1-2 mm in diameter, entire, dome-shaped, gray and shiny, resembling drops of mercury. GNCB/ pleomorphic in older c Bordetella pertussis
Produces cytochrome oxidase and catalase (weakly), is non-motile (possesses no flagella) Bordetella pertussis
cephalosporin 3rd generation, ciprofloxacin, erythromicin Drug of choice Bordetella pertussis
is the most common cause of human infections and is the most virulent. It is found in the Mediterranean region, Latin America, and Asia. Brucella melitensis (sheep, goats)
Is worldwide in distribution, and its virulence is mild to moderate. B. abortus (cattle)
is endemic in the southern United States, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, and its virulence is moderate. B. suis (swine)
Cause undulant fever (Bang's disease)/grow slowly in culture/brucella agar or chocolate agar. Recovery in blood cultures is slow. Very small GNCB/ rapid urease reaction (1 hour on Christensen's urea agar). Brucella
Ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, streptomycin Drug of choice Brucella melitensis
Produces yellow-green colonies/ fruity odor,Mac agar, is oxidase +, and asaccharolytic, hydrolysis of DNA, gelatin, and urea, and (-) reactions for indole, nitrate reduction, and hydrolysis of esculin and ONPG/ resistant to polymyxin B. Flavobacterium odoratum
Isolates have been reported from wounds, sputum, blood, and commonly from urine. necrotizing fasciitis and septicemia Flavobacterium odoratum
Is the species causing human infections, including 2 biovars, ss tularensis (North America), and ss palaearctica (Europe). Reservoirs of this bacterium include rabbits, rodents, squirrels, beavers, deer, and domestic animals Francisella tularensis
Transmission between animals is via ticks and biting flies. Humans acquire infection via the bites of infected ticks or deerflies or by direct contact with the tissues of infected animals, as can occur during the skinning and evisceration of game animals. Francisella tularensis
Growth on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE) and no growth on blood agar is a presumptive clue that an isolate may be Legionella species
Hydrolysis of NA hippurate is useful in separating __________ (+) from other Legionella species (-). Phenotypic characterization less than satisfactory. ID: serologically using immunofluorescent ab testing. L. pneumophila
Is the species most commonly associated with classic legionellosis.The most common manifestation is pneumonia. A milder form of the disease, Pontiac fever, presents as an influenza-like syndrome w/out sequelae and with few complications. L. pneumophila
Gray-white, smooth, opaque on BAP and choc, appear as small GNCBPR/ catalase and oxidase +. Asaccharolytic, strong DNase actvty, and the prodtn of beta lactamase/ separated from Neisseria species by hydrolysis of ester-linked butyrate groups (tributyrin) Moraxella catarrhalis
Contains supplements rich in cysteine, other aa, vit, hematin, and purines that are required for growth. It also contains antibiotics such as vancomycin, trimethoprim, and nystatin among others to enable recovery of N. gonorrhoeae from mixed cultures. MTM
Gram-negative diplococci with flattened opposing margins. In direct smears, the cells are seen intracellularly in segmented neutrophils. The identification can be confirmed if acid is produced from glucose, but not from maltose, sucrose, or lactose. N. gonorrhoeae
Glucose (+) Maltose (+)(Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome Neisseria meningitidis
Glucose(+) Maltose (+) Lactose (+) N. lactamica
Is most commonly isolated from urethral specimens, where it exists as a commensal/ similar to Moraxella species in being oxidase (+), nonmotile, and coccobacillary. Most strains grow on Mac, and(asaccharolytic). Oligella urethralis
The reduction of nitrite (but not nitrate) and + phenylalanine deaminase activity are two characteristics that, when taken together, separate __________ from Moraxella species. Oligella urethralis
Phenotypically resemble nonsaccharolytic Alcaligenes species, Bordetella bronchiseptica, n CDC group IVc-2, being motile via peritrichous flagella, oxidase (+), and(asaccharolytic). O. ureolytica
It differs from Alcaligenes species by rapidly hydrolyzin urea n from Bordetella bronchiseptica by reducin nitrates n nitrites n failin to hydrolyze malonate. O. ureolytica
The reduction of nitrates n nitrites (most strains) n + phenylalanine deaminase activity separates from CDC group IVc-2. Most human isolates have been from the urine, specifically in patients with long-term in-dwellin catheters O. ureolytica
Is a plant pathogen primarily causing onion bulb rot. It can be recovered from a wide variety of water sources, and in the hospital environment may be found on wet surfaces or where water accumulates, such as in nebulizer and bronchoscopy tubing, in irrig B. cepacia
Survives in various disinfectants, including povidone-iodine n quaternary ammonium complbs, n in fluids containin cycloheximide. Nosocomial infections pneumonia, septicemia, endocarditis, n septic arthritis, cystic fibrosis. B. cepacia
Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice for the treatment of infections with this organism. B. cepacia
Can be recovered from H2O n soil sources n often is found in various moist hospital environments, tracheostomies, in-dwelling catheters, burns, and weeping cutaneous wounds. The exudation of blue pus with a grape-like odor is characteristic. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Straight or slightly curved, slender, GNR. They are motile via polar flagella, r strict aerobes, n utilize carbs oxidatvly n never fermentatively. The temp range of growth for various strains extends from 4-43 deg Celsius. The cytochrome oxidase rxn is +. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Produce H@S, a characteristic helpful in diffn it from C. koseri, which is H2S (-). differentiated from certain closely related Salmonella species by failure to decarboxylate lysine decarboxylase, hydrolyzing ONPG, and the ability to grow in KCN. Citrobacter freundii
decarboxylates ornithine and produces acid from adonitol and malonate, both of which are negative reactions for C. freundii. In contrast, C. freundii produces acid from melibiose and sucrose, both of which are negative for most strains of C. koseri. C. koseri
Growth observed on HE after 36 hrs incubation at 35°C. The colonies r entire, convex, smooth to shiny, and distinctly green, showing no evidence of the yellow pigmentn indicatin lactose fermentation. Some have black central pigmentn indicatn H2S prodctn. Edwardsiella tarda
GNe sepsis and endotoxin-induced shock are serious complications. Urinary tract and wound infections, pneumonia in debilitated and immunocompromised patients, and neonatal meningitis are common infections. Escherichia coli
"dirty" gray on bap/produce a + spot indole test and dry pink-red colonies on Mac. The id confirmed by demonstrtin an acid slant/acid butt rxn on Kligler iron agar (fermenter), a + methyl red rxn, - Voges Proskauer, and - citrate utilizatn test results. Escherichia coli
heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins are produced, resulting in a watery diarrhea similar to that produced by Vibrios cholerae. Enterotoxigenic strains
produce an illness characterized by fever, malaise, vomiting and diarrhea, primarily in children. Enteropathogenic strains
penetration of the intestinal mucosa by the bacterial cells results in an inflammatory diarrhea similar to that produced by Shigella species. Blood, mucous, and segmented neutrophils are observed in fecal smears. Enteroinvasive strains
chiefly serogroup 0157:H7, produce a toxin that has a cytotoxic effect on Vero cells (called a verotoxin), producin in vivo effects similar to that produced by Shiga toxin. Enterohemorrhagic strains:
Hemorrhagic colitis results, manifest as abdominal cramps n watery diarrhea, followed by hemorrhagic discharge simulating a lower intestinal bleed. Enterohemorrhagic strains:
is the cause of a necrotizing lobar type pneumonia in which there is considerable hemorrhagic necrosis, leading to expectoratn of a "brick red" sputum that, when mixed with mucin, has a "currant jelly" appearance. K. pneumoniae
Infectns r most severe in persons with underlying diseases such as alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, n chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pleuritis, Urinary tract infections, meningitis(in infants), n septicemia K. pneumoniae
Can be suspected in culture when large, mucoid colonies are recovered on 1. isolatn media. On Mac colonies are large, distinctly mucoid, n have a red pigmentatn that diffuses into the surroundin med. This pigment productn is abundant acid from lactose. K. pneumoniae
Two key characteristics separating species from certain closely related Enterobacter species are the lack of motility and the inability to decarboxylate ornithine. Klebsiella
An indole-positive variant of K. pneumoniae, is found primarily in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals but also may be recovered from vegetative matter and aquatic environments Klebsiella oxytoca
Morganella morganii can be found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. It serves as a secondary pathogen in cases of urinary tract, respiratory tract, and wound infections. Morganella morganii
The combination characteristics of citrate negative, failure to produce hydrogen sulfide, and decarboxylation of ornithine Morganella morganii
recovered from soil, water, and any environment polluted with fecal material. part of the commensal flora of the LI of man and other animals. Most freq agent of uti and wound infectns, intestinal trauma and post colon surgery. Proteus mirabilis
- spot indole test, using a small inoculum from a well-isolated colony. strong urease activity, the production of hydrogen sulfide, a positive reaction for ornithine decarboxylase, and the failure to hydrolyze esculin or ferment salicin Proteus mirabilis
swarming colonies growing on bap/ odor-burned chocolate. id + spot indole test, using a small subculture. strong urease activity, H2S, - rxn for ornithine decarboxylase, and hydrolysis of esculin and the fermentation of salicin P. vulgaris
primarily recovered from the feces of humans, both with and without a diarrheal syndrome, with secondary spread to the urinary tract, wounds, and burns, where they cause infrequent infections. Providencia
Needs >100,000 for infection, H2S +, Lysine +, Indole -, Urea - Salmonella
May cause septicemia S. cholerasius
Typhoid fever. Blood + early (1st wk)/ stool + in 2nd/3rd wk S. typhi
ONPG + (others neg) S. arizona
Red pigment/ DNase, gelatinase + Serratia marcescens
(D) Most common/ has its natural habitat in the fecal content of humans. Infections occur following ingestion of contaminated food or water/ Lactose -, nonmotile, anaerogenic Shigella sonnei
Group A most severe S. dysenteriae
Group B S. flexneri
Group C S. boydii
The spread of black/ bubonic plague is via rodents to fleas, fleas to rodents. Yersinia pestis
acute mesenteric lymphadenitis and "pseudotubercules Y. pseudotuberculosis
Growth room temp and cold enrichment Y. enterocolitica
Motile by polar flagella, most are indole +, growth on mac, cellulitis, wound infections and diarrhea Aeromonas
6.5-7.5 pH Bacteria
5.0-6.0 pH Fungi
Enzyme synthesis and cell elongation Lag phase
Active reproduction Log Phase
Exhaustion of nutrients, less viability Stationary phase
Dead cells exced new cells Death phase
"Chinese Letters"; Metachromatic granules (Loeffler's Slants); tellurite hydrolysis (tinsdale agar); elek test determines toxin prod Corynebacterium
Tumbling motility at 25C, but not 37C; cold enrichment, neonatal menigitis and sepsis, sepsis in immunocomp hosts Listeria
Test tube brush in gelatin, infection in fisherman, butchers, veterinarians Erysipelothrix
Ground glass hemolytic colonies; non hemolytic, nonmotile, medusa head colonies, long bamboo shoots Bacillus anthracis
Ground glass hemolytic colonies; food poisioning, enterotoxin, beta hemolytic B. cereus
Long filamentous GNR w/ pleomorphic/ puffball or string of pearl colonies in thio broth/ rate bite fever haverhill fever/ acitic sample needed/ sps inhibits Streptobacillus moniliformis
Peridontal and jaw abscesses; high number in plague, center of colony has 4-6 pointed star actinobacillus
bleachy odor, pits agar, 3 zones of growth, peridontal and jaw abscesses eikenella
needs 5-10% co2 or anaerobic conditions, gliding motility, fusiform shape; bacteremia capnocytophaga
similar to actinobacillus, endocarditis haemophilus aprophilus
cause endocarditis, can gicve false + gram rxn cardiobacterium
clue cells; 10% koh added to discharge= fishy odor gardenella vaginalis
require x and v factors haemophilus
schoolof fish, genital ulcers h. ducreyi
growth on BCYE, legionaires disease legionella pneumophilia
inverted fried egg, dienes stain not gram stain mycoplasma/ureaplasma
causes primary atypical pneumonia, cold agglutinin titer m. pneumoniae
GN Ana, catalase +, black colonies on BBE bacteroides fragilis
gn ana pits agar, urease + bacteroides ureolyticus
gn ana, thin, fusiform rod, speckled col fusobacterium nucleatum
gn ana, rods variable in length and width fusobacterium necrophorum
gn ana, highly pleomorphic fusobacterium mortiferum
gp ana, pseudomembranous colitis, CCFA agar, horse stable odor, spore former c. dificile
gp ana, double zone of hemolysis, lecthinase +, gas gangrene, spores seldom observed c. perfringens
gp ana,terminal spores, racquet shaped, tetanus c. tetani
gp ana, molar tooth, branching, lumpy jaw, sulphur granules actinomyces israelii
gp ana, sensitive to sps p. anaaerobius
rickettsial pox, house mites r. akari
q fever, inhaled coxiella burnetti
typhus fever, louse r. prowazekii
rocky mt. spoted fever, tick r. rickettsiae
murine typhus, rat flea r. typhi
may infect 1/3 pop., res to drying, cauliflower colonies on LJ, mdr variants, id by nucleic acid probes, skin test for screening in US mycobacterium tuberculosis
environmental org, cause pulmonary disease, disseminated disease, infect immunocomp patients, nonpigmented on LJ, id by nucleic acid probes m. avium complex
causes leprosy (hansen disease), infects skin, mucous membranes, nerves, causes a progressive disease that is treatable, grows best in armadillo footpads m. leprae
Prescence of viral ab of ag EIA
Molecular cloning of a specific DNA sequence/ if viral ab unknown matches clone, the viral id is confirmed DNA probes
Method in which nucleic acid seq can be amplified in vitro/ carried out in cycles, each doubling the amount of desired nucleic acid product PCR
yellow fever, dengue, st. louis encephalitis, mosquito vector flavivirus
pulmonary syndrome, hemorrhagic fever, rodent-borne hantavirus
assoc w/ shellfish; one of most stable viruses infectings humans Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
formerly non-a, non b hepatitis Hepatitis c Virus (HAC)
measles, more serious in adults than in children morbillivirus
poliomyelitis, aseptic meningitis, occurs naturally only in humans poliovirus
seriuos respiratory infection in young children, giant multinucleated cells due to fusion of infected cells respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)
rabies, negri bodies in brain tissue of infected animals, rod or bullet shaped, wildlife- reservoir rhabdovirus
common cold rhinovirus
acute infectious infantile diarrhea, can cause death in infants rotavirus
rubella, vaccine available, contraindicated in pregnancy, spread by respiratory secretiions, seriuos congenital abnormalties rubivirus
respiratory infections adenovirus
infection mononucleosis, chronic failure syndrome, assc w. burkett's lymphoma,heterophile ab epstein-barr virus
ribbon-like aseptate hyphae; sexual and asexual zygomycota
septate, sexual and asexual, produce asci ascomycota
septate; sexual, mushrooms,club fungi basidiomycota
fungi imperfecti, no sexual stage, many common pathogens deuteromycota
simialar to SAB, inhibits some candida and crytococcus, aspergilluis fumigatus and pseudallescheria mycosel
cryoptococcus neoformans (brown colonies) bird seed agar
candida albicans (chlamydoconidia) corn meal agar
tinea (mostly in children), hair and skin, hair fluoresces, microconidia (small club-shaped), macroconidia (many, rough, spindle-shaped (except m.audouinii) microsporum
rare distorted macroconidia, terminal chlamydoconidia microsporum audouinii
thick walled macroconidia; knobby end microsporum canis
thin walled macroconidia microsporum gypseum
mostly in adults; hair skin and nails; no fluorescing hairs trichophyton
urease +. rose-brown reverse trichophyton mentagrophytes
urease -, red reverse trichophyton rubrum
black dot ringworm, balloon forms, yellow red reverse trichophyton tonsurans
feet, hands, and groin; macroconidia (large, smooth, club-shaped, found in singles or clusters at end of hyphae, 2-4 septa), olive green or khaki color epidermophyton floccosum
bat and bird droppings; oh and ms river valley; infects RES (Bone marrow), yeast(very small), mycelial (tuberculate n macroconidia) histoplasma capsulatum
along oh, ms valley n appalachia, may cause skin lesions, yeast (broad based bud, double-contoured wall), mycelial (lollipop forms) blastomyces dermatitidis
desert southwest and semiarid regions, yeast (spherules containing endospores), mycelial (alternatively staining arthroconidia) coccidioides immitis
south american blastomycosis, simulates tb, cutaneous lesions, yeast (multiple buds "mariner wheel"), mold (similar to lollipop forms) paracoccidioides brasiliensis
found in dirt and on plants (rose gardener's mycosis), yeast (cigar bodies), mold (delicate hyphae with ovoid conidia along side or in rosettte heads) sporothrix schenckii
germ tube +, urease -, may be isolated in blood of immunosuppressed candida albicans
germ tube -, forms structure between tube and spore candida tropicalis
hockey stick bud on one corner of arthroconidia geotrichum
budding from both corners of arthroconidia urease + trichosporon
assimilates only glucose and trehalose, no pseudohyphae candida (torulopsis) glabrata
urease +, brown colonies on birdseed agar, india ink cryptococcus neoformans
small extracellular yeast candida sp. or sporothrix schenckii
small intracellular yeast histoplasma capsulatum
yeast with pseudoyphae candida sp.
large yeast with broad based buds blastomyces dermatiditis
large yeast with multiple buds paracoccidioides brasiliensis
endospherules and endospores coccidioides immitis
green or blue-green colonies; branching or penicillus head, sterigmata blunt penicillium
delicate hyphae, elippticak conidia with appearance of brain surface acremonium
colonies lavendar to purple; banana shaped macroconidia fusarium
conidiophore ends in swelling which carries sterigmata and chains of conidia, farmer's lung aspergillus
green conidia aspergillus fumigatus
yellow conidia aspergillus flavus
black colonies aspergillus niger
Dog hookworm ancylostoma caninum
old world hookworm ancylostoma duodenale
large intestinal roundworm ascaris lumbricoides
oriental/chinese liverfluke clonorchis sinensis
broad fish tapeworm diphyllobothrium latum
hydatid tapeworm echinococcus granulosus
pinworm enterobius vermicularis
large intestinal fluke fasciolopsis buski
sheep liver fluke fasciola hepatica
rate tapeworm hymenolepis diminuta
dwarf tapeworm hymenolepsis nana
eyeworm loa loa
new world hookworm necator americanus
blinding worm onchocerca volvulus
oriental lung fluke paragonimus westermani
bladder fluke schistosoma haematobium
oriental blood fluke schistosoma japonicum
manson's blood fluke schistosoma mansoni
threadworm stronglyloides stercoralis
beef tapeworm taenia saginata
pork tapeworm taenia solium
dog/cat ascarid toxocara canis/cati
whipworm trichuris trichiura
Created by: tsugrad07
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