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Body Fluids

Body fluids, hematology, CSF

5 types of body fluids 1. Pleural 2. Peritoneal 3. Pericardial 4. CSF 5. Synovial
Pleural fluid 1. Anatomic site. 2. procedure 1. Pleual cavity 2. Thoracentesis
Peritoneal fluid 1. Anatomic site. 2. procedure 1. Peritoneal cavity 2. Paracentesis
Pericardial fluid 1. Anatomic site. 2. procedure 1. Pericardial cavity 2. Pericardial aspiration
Synovial fluid 1. Anatomic site. 2. procedure 1. Joint space 2. Joint aspiration (arthrocentesis)
CSF 1. Anatomic site. 2. procedure 1. Spinal cord 2. Spinal tap, lumbar puncture
What 2 body sites normally contain fluids? 1. CNS 2. Joint spaces
Name pleural lining that covers the lung. Visceral pleura.
Name the lining that covers the inside of the chest wall Parietal pleura
Ascites Fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavityt.
What 4 organs are covered by peritoneal lining? 1. Pancreas; 2. Duodenum; 3. Some lymph nodes; 4. Abdominal aorta.
2 layers of peritoneal lining. 1. Mesothelial cells layer; 2. Submesothelial connective tissue.
What is pericardium? A thin membrane that covers pericardial cavity.
Cardiac tamponade. Fluid accumulates in pericardial sac restricting the normal heart beat.
6 layers that cover brain 1. Pia mater; 2. Subarachnoid space; 3. Arachnoid mater; 4. Subdural space; 5. Dura mater; 6. Scull
The meninges consists of... 1. Dura mater; 2. Arachnoid mater; 3. Pia mater.
What produces CSF? Coroid plexus cells and ependymal lining cells found in the ventricles.
What space does CSF occupy? Subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater.
Total volume of CSF: 1. in adults; 2. in neonates. 1. 90 - 150 ml; 2. 10 - 60 ml
Rate of CSF production 21 ml/hour
Special tissue cells in body fluids: 1. Pleural; 2. Peritoneal; 3. Pericardial; 4. Synovial; 5. CSF. 1 - 3 Mesothelial cells; 4. Synovial cells + hyaluronic acid; 5. Choroid plexus cells & ependymal cells.
In what 3 fluids we can see neutrophils? 1. Pleural; 2. Peritoneal; 3. Pericardial.
3 types of lymphocytes in body fluids 1. Small; 2. Large; 3. Reactive
Increased number of basophils can indicate… Myloproliferative disorders
Syncytium In CSF, cluster of arachnoid cells with a mass of cytoplasm containing several nuclei.
Cytocntrifuge artifact in neutrophils Peripheral localization of nuclear lobes
3 cytocentrifuge artifacts in lymphocytes. 1. More prominent nucleoli; 2. Cytoplasmic projections; 3. Irregular shaped nucleus.
What lining produces pleural, pericardial and peritoneal body fluids? Parietal
What lining absorbs pleural, pericardial and peritoneal body fluids? Visceral
4 factors affecting body fluid formation. 1. Capillary hydrostatic pressure; 2. Plasma oncotic pressure; 3. Lymphatic resorption; 4. Capillary permeability.
Effusion Abnormal fluid accumulation in pleural, pericardial and peritoneal spaces.
Transudate accumulates due to…. 2 examples of conditions. A systemic disease state : 1. Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure in congestive heart failure; 2. Decreased plasma oncotic pressure due to hypoproteinemia of nephrotic syndrome or liver failure.
Exudate accumulates due to… A primary pathologic state of the area.
Chylous effusion. 3 characteristics. 1. Milky, opaque appearance. 2. High triglycerides (> 110 mg/dl); 3. Lymphocytes are predominant
Chylous effusion is a result of.. Chylous effusion is a result of.. Leakage of lymphatic vessels due to malignancy or trauma.
Pseudochylous effusion is a result of… Chronic effusion due to tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Pseudochylous effusion. 2 characteristics. 1. Triglycerides <50 mg/dl 2. Mixed reactive, inflammatory and necrotic cells.
4 nonspecific reactive changes in mesothelial cells 1. Multiple nuclei; 2. Nucleoli; 3. Mitotic activity; 4. Increase cell size.
Traumatic tap vs CNS hemorrhage. Traumatic tap: RBCs in the 1st tube>> RBCs in the last tube collected
Xantochromia. What does it indicate? Pink to orange CSF. Indicates true CNS hemorrhage.
What is definitive sign of CNS hemorrhage (on cellular level)? Erythrophagocytosis by histiocytes.
How long does it take for histiocytes to phagocyte erythrocytes? 18 hours after CNS hemorrhage.
What is an indicator of old (>18 hours) CNS hemorrhage? Presence of hematoidin crystals.
Transudate. Specific gravity <1.015
Transudate.Total protein <3.0 g/dl
Transudate.Fluid:serum protein ratio < 0.5
Transudate.Lactate dehydrogenase fluid:serum ratio < 0.6
Transudate.WBC count < 1000/ ul
Exudate. Specific gravity >1.015
Exudate. Total protein > 3.0 g/dL
Exudate. Fluid:serum protein ratio > 0.5
Exudate. Lactate dehydrogenase fluid:serum ratio > 0.6
Exudate. WBC count > 1000 /ul
What is the most common microorganism seen in CSF? Cryptococcus
Hyaluronic acid Mucopolysaccharide secreted by synovial cells.
CSF. Slightly hazy. Dilution. 1:10 (30μl of sample + 270μl)
CSF. Hazy. Dilution 1:20 (30 μl of sample + 570μl)
CSF. Slightly cloudy. Dilution 1:100 (30 μl of sample + 2970μl)
CFS. Slightly bloody. Dilution 1:200 (30 μl of sample + 5970μl)
CSF. Cloudy, bloody, turbid. Dilution 1:10,000 (0.1 ml of a 1:100 dilution + 9.9ml)
Bacterial meningitis. 6 CSF findings. 1.↑ WBC 2. Neutrophils 3. ↑↑ Protein 4. ↓↓ Glucose 5. Lactate > 35 mg/dl 6. Pos. Gram stain
Viral meningitis. 5 CSF findings. 1.↑ WBC 2. Lymphocytes 3. mod.↑ protein 4. normal glucose 5. Normal lactate
Tuberculosis. 5 CSF findings. 1.↑ WBC 2. Lymphocytes and monocytes 3. ↑ protein 4. ↓ glucose 5. lactate > 25 mg/dl
Fungal meningitis. 6 CSF findings. 1.↑ WBC 2. lymphocytes and monocytes 3. ↑ protein 4. normal/↓ glucose 5. lactate > 25 mg/dl 6. pos. India ink
Pleural fluid. Clear, pale yellow. Normal
Pleural fluid. Turbid white. Microbial infection (tuberculosis).
Pleural fluid. Bloody. Hemothorax. Hemorrhagic effusion.
Pleural fluid. Milky. Chylous or pseudochylous effusion.
Created by: Teresa_indigo