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2VCOMImmunology Lec3

Elements of Innate and Acquired Immunity; Immunogens and Antigens

What is the term for the primitive form of immunity that provides immediate defense against an infection by recognizing generic factors on a pathogen? Innate Immunity
What form of immunity is highly specialized and has memory for the pathogen for the future? Acquired or adaptive immunity
What cells are apart of the innate immune system? natural killer cells, mast cells, basophils and eosinophils, phagocytes, and antigen presenting cells
What cells are apart of the acquired or adaptive immune system? helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, memory cells
What immune cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity? Cytotoxic T cells, with activation by the Helper T cells (which were activated by antigen presenting cells)
What cells are involved with humoral immunity? B cells, which term into plasma cells (and B cells are activated by helper T cells, which were activated by antigen presenting cells)
What happens when you get natural active immunity? Infection causes CMI or antibody-mediated immunity and memory vs. future infections
What happens when you get artificial active immunity? Vaccination (small dose of antigen to activate adaptive immune system)
What is the difference between natural and artificial passive immunity? natural: get antibodies through placenta or breastmilk - artificial: get antibodies through anti-serum which is administration of antibodies
What is the difference between an antigen and immunogen? antigen is any substance that can prompt an immune response (self or non-self) - immunogen is an antigen that is foreign
What are the two primary immune organs? bone marrow and thymus
What is the desired positive selection in regards to thymus schooling? What is the desired negative selection? 1) Positive selection – T cell responds to foreign antigen with high affinity 2) Negative selection – T cell does not respond to self antigens.
What immune cells are schooled in the thymus? T cells only
How are T cells distinguished from other B cells or NK cells? they have a T cell receptor (TCR) on their cell surface
What specific protein do Helper T cells have on their cell surface? CD4 protein
What specific protein do Cytotoxic T cells have on their cell surface? CD8 protein
What cells shut down the CMI towards the end of an immune reaction and suppress autoreactive T cells? Regulatory T cells (Tregs)
Th1 Helper T lymphocytes stimulates what cell? cytotoxic T cells
Th2 Helper T lymphocytes stimulates what cell? B cells
What are the two main functions of B cells? Make antibodies and serve as an antigen presenting cell
What do antigen presenting cells do? They phagocytose pathogens, break up their antigens, display them on their cell surface receptors, and present them to helper T cells.
What are the three main types of APCs? Dendritic cells, Macrophages, and B cells
What are the six main ways the skin is a natural barrier to infection? 1) Stratified Squamous epithelium flaking off, 2) Higher salt concentration (antiseptic), 3) Sebaceous glands secrete acidic sebum, 4) Commensal bacteria prevent pathogen growth, 5) Lower temperature on skin, 6) APCs on skin surface to sample environment
List the leukocytes. NK Cells, Mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells
Does the helper T cell become a Th1 or Th2 cell for an intracellular antigen? extracellular antigen? Th1 cell for intracellular antigen, Th2 cell for extracellular antigen
What cell makes antibodies? plasma cells
Created by: VCOM2013