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Health Ch. 2

Apologia Health and Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
THE BRAIN (Figures 2.3 & 2.8 in textbook) Cerebrum (pgs. 33-34) Where thinking happens
Pineal Body (pg. 42) Located deep in the brain, between the 2 halves of the thalamus The pineal body responds to light, but not directly. The activity of the optic nerves directs the pineal body. Daylight: produces serotonin; Darkness: produces melatonin (sleep cycle)
Cerebellum (pg. 34) Near the nape of the neck, but still inside the bony skull (large, cauliflower shape) Refines muscle movement and coordinates balance
Brain Stem (pg. 34) Found at the upper end of the spinal cord inside the skull-it sticks up like a stem of a flower into the middle of the brain. Responsible for breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, sleeping, and waking
Thalamus (pg. 34) Another large part of the brain made up of a right and a left half-shaped like an elongated walnut nestled up under its half of the cerebrum. It acts as a relay station for messages going in (sensory) and out (motor).
Hypothalamus Region (pg. 34) Major link between the nervous system & the endocrine system Below and a little in front of the 2 halves of the thamamus-it means "under the thalamus" Receives nerve signals and sends out hormones that stimulate other glands to produce hormones. Also, regulates body temperature, appetite, and thirst.
Pituitary Gland (pg. 43) Located below and in front of the hypothalamus; waits for a signal from the hypothalamus to release some major hormones such as growth hormone, reproductive hormones in males and females.
ENDOCRINE GLANDS (Endocrine System) pgs. 42-49-see Figure 2.7 Adrenal Gland Known for producing epinephrine and cortisol (hormones released in response to stress). Prepares the body for conflict: to either stand and fight or to run away-"fight or flight"reaction
Pituitary Gland Located below and in front of the hypothalamus; waits for a signal from the hypothalamus to release some major hormones such as growth hormone, reproductive hormones in males and females.
Pancreas Produces enzymes for digestion, but it also produces insulin, which controls glucose (sugar) levels in the cells and blood.
Pineal Body Located deep in the brain, between the 2 halves of the thalamus The pineal body responds to light, but not directly. The activity of the optic nerves directs the pineal body. Daylight: produces serotonin; Darkness: produces melatonin (sleep cycle)
Thyroid At the base of your neck (like a little bow tie in size and location). Produces the hormone thyroxine. In order for your thyroid to make thyroxine, you must consume iodine (see Iodine & Goiters, pgs. 45-46 in blue).
Cerebrovascular Accident A stroke-an interruption in normal blood circulation in the brain
Diabetes Insulin resistance in people who are normally obese (95% of all diabetes is Type 2). If not treated, causes kidney & heart disease, stroke, deterioration in the nerves, and blindness
Addiction A strong physical or emotional dependence on a substance or behavior that causes a rush of pleasure or relief from pain.
Dopamine Flooding When an illegal drug (Cocaine, Amphetamines) increases dopamine in an excessive, artificial way. It is a temporary high of intense pleasure and energy.
Physical Dependence With repeated use of drugs such as heroin or morphine, the pleasure from the addiction wanes and pain is not relieved. Eventually, the addict suffers pain if the addictive substance is not regularly consumed.
ILLEGAL DRUGS They imitate or enhance neurotransmitters. Example: Cocaine & Amphetamines increase dopamine but in an artificial way
Nervous System Consists of the brain, spinal cord, and sensory and motor nerves
Inflammation A state of irritation in a part of the body and can be part of the natural process of healing. Symptoms: tissues become red with extra blood flow, feel warmer than normal, swelling, pain, and hypersensitivity to touch What causes inflammation? injury, allergy, and infection by viruses or bacteria
Emotions What affects them due to changes within the body? Thyroid hormone, Glucose, Adrenal hormones epinephrine and cortisol, and reproductive hormones
Nervous System Reflex A neural message that passes through a sensory neuron, an association neuron, and a motor neuron and causes a muscle to contract without any thought.
The Pancreas and Insulin What does it do? Lowers the amount of glucose in the blood Causes reactive hypoglycemia (overcorrection by insulin) when oversecreted Is released by cells in the pancreas when blood glucose levels go up Causes the cells of the body to take in glucose from the blood
Learning With learning, you don't grow new brain cells. When new information is learned, the axons and dendrites of some association neurons form new networks with other association neurons, connecting up with cells they didn't connect with before. You do have choices; it is not a fixed instinct.
Endocrine System What does it include? Glands and the hormones they produce Hormones that act on any cell in the body that has a receptor for those hormones Glands that affect sleep, metabolism, and blood sugar levels
Neuron See Figure 2.1, pg. 32 A nerve cell with a cell body, one axon, and many dendrites.
Edema Swelling due to a small blood vessel leak in the brain
Laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx (voice box).
Encephalitis An inflammation of the brain itself, usually from a virus passed through a mosquito bite
Meningitis An inflammation of the meninges, the protective layers around the brain inside the skull. This disease can look like the typical flu because it causes a high fever, severe headache, and vomiting, but it is different from the flu in one way---a stiff neck.
Neurotransmitters A chemical that can diffuse in the fluid between the cells and cross the synapse. Each synapse produces only a tiny amount of one neurotransmitter. Food choices, sleep, exercise, and stress can affect neurotransmitter balance for better or for worse. A neurotransmitter imbalance MAY cause SOME mental illnesses.
Seizures Is an abnormal, excessive activity of the brain's neurons, often with no clear reason. Suddenly, a group of neurons starts sending waves of synchronized impulses that change the ability to think and often produce physical movement. Seizures vary in intensity and effects. You can do nothing to shorten someone else's seizure. The person having the seizure cannot stop himself either. Epilepsy is when you have more than one seizure. Many seizures are not due to epilepsy. Ex. high fever or infection
Concussion A mild traumatic brain injury (very common)-it is a result of a hard knock to the head, which causes a bruise to form on the brain. It rarely knocks someone out. A concussion causes confusion, headache, dizziness, clumsiness in movement, sensitivity to light, emotional irritability, and vomiting. You must rest until the symptoms improve-stop all activity. A person who suffers several concussions has a greater risk later in life to develop Parkinson's disease, dementia, or depression.
Concussion (cont.) Most people seem okay after a concussion, but don't be fooled by that. They need to be careful and try to avoid a repeat.