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Anatomy Ch1

Base terms and stuff

TermDefinition
Anatomy study of the structure/morphology of human body and its parts. Greek for a cutting up (what and where)
Physiology (how) study of the functions of the human body and its parts; derived from Greek “relationship to nature”
Sub atomic particles protons,neutrons and electrons make up cells
Atom ; tiny particles that make up chemicals (hydrogen, carbon)
Molecule; particles consisting of atoms joined together (water, glucose)
Macromolecule; large particles consisting of molecules (DNA, protein)
Organelle; functional part of a cell (lysomsom¬e, mitochondria)
Cell; basic unit of structure and functions (muscle, nerve or blood cell)
Tissue; layer or mass of cells with specific function (adipose tissue)
Organ; group of different tissues with a function (digestive system)
Organism; composed of organ systems interacting (human)
Metabolism Events inside the body which obtain, release, and utilize energy are the main part of metabolism (all of the chemical reactions in an organism that support life).
Life requires 5 environmental factors Water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure (atmosperhic pressure important for breathing, hydrostatic pressure keeps blood flowing)
Homeostatic mechanisms: self-regulating systems that monitor aspects of the internal environment and correct them as needed.
3 parts of a homeostatic mechanism Receptor, control center, effector
Receptor: detects and provides information about the stimuli
Control Center: decision- maker that maintains the set point
Effector muscle or gland that responds to the control center, and causes the necessary change in the internal environment
Negative feedback in homeostasis : stimulus and reaction are different (blood sugar high, body tries to take it down. Negative) counteracts
Positive feedback in homeostasis: intensifies the effect (contractions in childbirth, body makes them more intense)
Axial portion: head, neck and trunk
Appendicular portion: upper and lower limbs
Cranial cavity: houses brain
Vertebral canal (spinal cavity) contains spinal cord
Thoracic cavity: houses lungs and thoracic viscera
Abdominopelvic cavity: contains abdominal and pelvic viscera
Diaphragm: muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
Mediastinum: region between lungs in thoracic cavity, which contains heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland
Abdominal cavity: extends from diaphragm to top of pelvis, and contains stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys small intestine, most of large intestine
Pelvic Cavity: enclosed by pelvic bones, and contains end of large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
small cavities of the head Oral cavity, Nasal cavity, Orbital cavities, Middle ear cavities, Paranasal sinuses
Serous membranes consist of 2 layers: Visceral layer, Parietal layer
Visceral Layer inner layer, which covers an organ
Parietal Layer outer layer, which lines wall of cavity
abdominopelvic serous membrane peritoneum
Lungs serous membrane pleura
Heart serous membrane pericardium
Skin Integumentary system
Integration and coordination of organ function through nerve impulses or hormones Nervous and endocrine systems
Transportation of fluids, lymphocyte production, body defense Lymphatic system
Anatomical position: Standing erect, facing forward, upper limbs at the sides, palms facing forward
Anterior or ventral toward the front
posterior or dorsal toward back
Medial toward midline
lateral away from midline
Bilateral paired structures; on both side
Ipsilateral same side
contralateral opposite sides
Proximal close to point of attachment to trunk
distal father from point
Superficial close to body surface
deep more internal
Mid sagittal/median section divides body into equal left and right portions
Parasagittal section sagittal section lateral to midline; divides body into unequal left and right portions
Coronal or Frontal sections: longitudinal cut that divides body into anterior and posterior portions
Oblique Odd at angle cut
Head region Cephalic
Face reigion facial
Forehead region frontal
Ears region Otic
Chin region mental
Cheek region buccal
Eyes region orbital
Shoulder point region acromial
Whole chest region thoracic
peck body region Pectoral
around the areola area Mammary
sternum region Sternal
Abdomen region abdominal
Naval region umbilical
Hip coxal
is at hip and leg attachment Inguinal
Pelvic area Pubic area
Neck region Cervical
underarm region Axillary
Upper arm region Brachial
inner elbow (front) c ANTEcubital
Wrist region Carpal
Palm of hand Palmar
Fingers Digital
Upper leg region (femur area) Femoral
Knee region Patellar
Lower leg (shin) region Crural
Ankle region Tarsal
Toes Digital
nose region Nasal
Entire hand region Manual
Taint area Perineal
Entire foot region Pedal
Base of skull occipital
point of shoulder still (back of body) Acromial
Spinal column region vertebral
Back region dorsal
elbow region Cubital
between hips Sacral
buttocks region Gluteal
Lower back region lumbar
back of knee region Popliteal
calf region Sural
heel region Calcaneal
sole region plantar
forearm region antebrachial
Created by: Devtemrys