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Ch 1 Lect. Anatomy

Anatomy Studies the structure of the body parts (what it is)
Physiology How the structures work (what it does)
Gross anatomy / macroscopic anatomy Can be seen by the naked eye
Microscopic anatomy Can be seen with a microscope
Regional anatomy All the structures in a particular area of the body
System anatomy Looks at just one system (cardiovascular, nervous, muscular)
Cytology The study of Cells
Histology The study of Tissues
Embryology Study of Development before birth
Anatomy and physiology are what to eachother? They are complementary to eachother
Levels the body is organized smallest to largest: Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
The chemical level contains: Atoms (smallest non living units of the body), molecules, and organelles
Cellular level contains: Single cell
Tissue level contains: Group of similar cells
Organ level contains: Contains at least 2 types of tissues
Organ system level contains: Organs that work together
Organismal level contains: All organ systems combined to make the whole organism
8 necessary life functions: (Maintenance of life involves:) Maintaining boundaries Movement Responsiveness Digestion Metabolism Excretion Reproduction Growth
Maintaining boundaries: Separation between internal and external environments must exist
Movement: what allows it and what refers to movement at the cellular level Muscular system allows movement Contractility refers to movement at the cellular level
Responsiveness: what it is and an example Ability to sense and respond to stimuli. Withdrawal reflex from injury
Digestion: what it does Breakdown of ingested foods, followed by absorption of simple molecules into blood
metabolism: what it is and the meaning of Catabolism Anabolism All chemical reactions that occur in body cells Breakdown of molecules is catabolism The synthesis or the growing of molecules is anabolism
What is excretion The removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion
The 11 organ systems And what they do Skeletal system- protects and supports also Stores calcium Muscular system- helps move around and provides heat nervous system- quickest to respond to stimuli (fast-action control center) regulator for endocrine glands
11 organ systems continued Endocrine system- secretes hormones and second fastest to respond to stimuli Cardiovascular- move oxygen and carbon dioxide lymphatic system- The immune response. Shrinks as you grow in children it’s large in the chest area.
11 organ systems continued more Respiratory system-oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanging. How air moves around. Pharynx is digestive and respiratory. Larynx is solo respiratory Digestive system- A tube from the mouth to the anus. Similar tissue in both the top and the bottom half
11 organ systems final Urinary system- excretion. Transitional epithelium Female reproductive system- vagina, ovaries Male reproductive system- testicles
The survival needs at cell level and full level Nutrients, oxygen, water, normal body temperature, appropriate atmospheric pressure
What is homeostasis It’s the “steady state” the body maintains internally. A dynamic state of equilibrium that is always readjusting as needed
Homeostatic controls Receptor, control center, and effector
The receptor Affective. Response to stimuli
Control center Determines a set point at which variable is maintained. Determines an appropriate response
Effector Receives output from the control center
What is negative feedback And abnormality. The most used feedback mechanism in the body
What is Positive feedback Response that enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus. Further it’s self along to an end. Example birth or blood clotting
Created by: Pelinair



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