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A&P 1 Chapter 1

TermDefinition
Microscopic Anatomy Structures that have to be seen with a microscope
Macro(Gross)scopic Anatomy Structures that are visible to the naked eye
Cytology Study of cells
Histology Study of tissues
Systemic anatomy Study of each functional body system
Pathologic anatomy Macro and Microscopic structures and their change due to disease
Radiographic anatomy Internal structures seen by scanning procedures
Regional anatomy All the structures in a certain area of the body
Surface anatomy Superficial anatomic and internal structures
Comparative anatomy Compare and contrast of anatomical structures in different species
Embryology Developmental changes from conception to birth
Cardiovascular Functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood
Neurophysiology Functions of nerves and nervous system
Respiratory physiology Functions of the respiratory system and their organs
Reproductive physiology Functions of the reproductive system and organs
Pathophysiology Function of an organ system and their organs and the disease relating to it
Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions that happen in the body
Anabolism Subdivision of metabolism - small molecules form into bigger molecules
Catabolism Subdivision of metabolism- large molecules break into small molecules
Homeostasis Maintain body structure and functions
Atoms Smallest units of matter
Molecules One or more atoms
Macromolecules Complex molecules
Cells smallest living structure
Most medical terms come from Greek and Latin
Anatomic position Common reference point
Prone Horizontal - face down
Supine ( spine ) Horizontal - face up
Pronation Turing face down ( elbow and ankle )
Supination Turing face up ( elbow and ankle )
Section A real cut that exposes internal anatomy
Plane Imaginary line through a structure
Coronal Plane Dividing the body into front and back parts - Vertical plane
Transverse Plane Dividing the body into top and bottom parts - Horizontal plane
Midsagittal Plane Divides the body into equal right and left parts - Vertical plane
Sagittal Plane Divides the body into right and left unequal parts - Vertical plane
Oblique Plane Divides the body at an angle ( not 90 degrees )
Anterior Front
Posterior Back
Dorsal Back
Ventral Front ( back or belly )
Superior Top
Inferior Bottom
Cranial Head end ( top )
Medial Towards the Middle
Lateral Away from the Middle
Superficial Outside
Proximal Closer to the point of attachment
Distal Further from the point of attachment
Axial Region Head, neck trunk - moves the body
Appendicular Region Limbs
Receptor Detects change in a situation
Control Center Sees changes from receptor and initiates changes to the effector
Effector Structure that brings changes
Negative feedback Responds in the opposite direction to change the stimulus back to normal
Positive feedback Moves variable in the same direction as the stimulus to be removed
Stimulus Something that changes the variable from the normal range
Normal Range - Body Temperature 98.6 F 37 C
Normal Range - Blood Pressure 90-120 or 60-80 mm Hg
Normal Range - Blood Sugar Content 80-110 mg/dL
Created by: Jo5