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MT - Ch. 12

Essentials of Medical Terminology - Ch 12

cardiovascular system heart & blood vessels (arteries, veins, & capillaries)
arteries carry blood away from the heart
veins carry blood toward the heart
capillaries tiny blood vessels that join the arterial & venous systems & carry blood to the organs
heart lies within pericardium which is located in the thoracic cavity, posterior to the sternum & left of the midline
it is connected to the aorta which is inferior & superior venae cavae, & pulmonary veins & arteries
heart have four chambers (r&l atria, r&l ventricles)
septum structure separates r&l sides of the heart
artioventricular valves allow blood to flow from artria to ventricles
right artioventricular valve tricuspid valve
left artioventricular valve bicuspid or mitral valve
semilunar valves allow blood to flow from the ventricles to arteries
pulmonary semilunar valve allows blood to flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery
aortic semilunar valve allows blood to flow from the left ventricle into the aorta
layers of the heart (in to out) endocardium, myocardium, & epicardium
endocardium (thin inside) is epithelial tissue
myocardium (thick middle layer) consists of cardiac muscle tissue
epicardium (outer layer) connective & epithelial tissue
pericardium is sac filled w/pericardial fluid
parietal layer outer covering of the pericardium
visceral layer (epicardium) inner lining of the pericardium
conduction system the heart's electrical system (if removed from body)
conduction system have 5 specialized network of muscle cells sinoatrial node (SA node, pacemaker), artioventricular node (AV node), atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle, or bundle of His), r&l bundle branches, purkinje fibers
SA node initiates an impulse
sent to AV node causing atria to contract
then AV bundle & purkinje fibers causing the ventricles to contract
electrocardiograph instrument monitor & produce a written record of the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiogram (ECG) consists P waves(atrial contraction), QRS waves (ventricular contraction), & T waves (ventricular recovery)
heartbeat consists systole (contraction phase) & diastole (resting phase)
pulse dilation of the arteries during the systolic phase
sphygmomanometer blood pressure is measured
systolic pressure is higher (first number)
diastolic pressure is lower (second number)
hypertension high blood pressure
hypotension low blood pressure
murmur blowing sound indicative of abnormal blood flow
lupp (S1-first heat sound) is sound of the artioventricular valves closing
dubb (S2-second heart sound) is sound of semilunar valves closing
complete heartbeat lupp-dubb
blood vessels consists arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, & capillaries
capillary beds are embedded in the organs
capillaries feed the cells, take away waste, & connect the arterial & venous systems
heart is fed by coronary arteries
collateral circulation another route if one road is blocked off for repair (arterial system has parallel routes to allow blockages)
arteries & veins usually named after organ thru which they pass (capillaries are not named)
constrict/o to draw together
dilat/o to expand
angi/o vessel
-graphy process of recording
angiography process of recording a blood vessel using x-ray following injection of a contrast medium
angioplasty surgical repair of stenosed (narrowed) blood vessels (pg.256)
angiospasm sudden, involuntary contraction of a blood vessel; vasospasm
aort/o aorta
-stenosis narrowing
aortostenosis narrowing of the aorta
arteri/o artery
arteriography process of recording the arteries using x-ray & following injection of a contrast medium
-ole small
arteriole small arteries
-sclerosis hardening
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries due to the loss of elasticity of the arterial walls
arteriostenosis narrowing of an artery
-ectomy surgical removal; excision
endarterectomy removal of the inner lining of the arterial wall (used to treat atherosclerosis)
ather/o fatty debris; fatty plaque
atheroma fatty mass or debris
atherosclerosis accumulation of fatty debris on the arterial wall
atri/o atrium (upper chamber of the heart)
inter between
septum wall
interatrial septum wall b/w the atria
cardi/o heart
cardiologist specialist in the study of cardiology
cardiology study of the heart, including the diagnosis & treatment of heart disorders
-megaly enlargement
cardiomeagaly enlarged heart
-gram record
electr/o electric
electrocardiogram record of the electrical activity of the heart
my/o muscle
myocardial pertaining to the heart muscle
pan all
pancarditis inflammation of all the walls of the heart, including the epicardium, myocardium, & endocardium
peri around
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
-um structure
pericardium structure around the heart
coron/o crown
coronary arteries arteries that supply the heart w/blood (sit on top of the heart like a crown)
ech/o sound
echocardiogram record of the heart produced by sound waves
embol/o plug
-us condition; thing
embolus plug of clotted blood that is transported thru bloodstream by the blood current
isch/o hold back
myocardial ischemia hold back of blood to the heart muscle
angina pectoris severe chest pain
myocardial infarction area of tissue that undergone necrosis (death) due to lack of blood supply to the heart
phleb/o vein
-osis abnormal condition
phlebothrombosis abnormal condition of clots in a vein
thromb/o clot
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein w/ clot formation
rhythm/o rhythm
a(n)- no; not
arrhythmia deviation from the normal heart rhythm
scler/o hardening
-therapy treatment
sclerotherapy injection of a soln into a vein for the purpose of destroying the vein inner lining by sclerosis
thrombus blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel
valvul/o valve
valvuloplasty surgical repair of a valve
varic/o twisted & swollen
-ose pertaining to
varicose veins (pg 261) twisted, swollen superficial veins, typically of the saphenous vein of the lower leg
vascul/o vessel
avascular pertaining to no blood vessels
cerebr/o brain
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) disturbance in the flow of blood to one or more parts of the brain (stroke)
vas/o vein
extravasation excape of fluid into the surrounding tissue
vasoconstriction process of drawing together the walls of a vessel; narrowing of the lumen; vasospasm
vasodilation process of vessel expansion; widening of the vessel
ven/o vein
venous pertaining to a vein
venule small vein
ventricul/o ventricle (lower chamber of the heart)
interventricular septum pertaining to the wall b/w the ventricles
-ectasis dilation; dilation; stretching
angiectasis dilation of a blood vessel
-brady slow
bradycardia slow heartbeat
-tachy fast
tachycardia fast heartbeat
BP blood pressure
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart diease (damage to the heart due to the obstruction of a coronary artery)
Created by: ltravis