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The Endocrine System

Chapter 8

TermDefinition
Amino Acid Based Hormones composed of proteins, peptides, or amines
Steroid Based Hormones composed of cholesterol
hypothalamus brain region
pituitary gland brain region- divided anterior & posterior
pineal gland brain region
thyroid neck & thorax
parathyroid neck & thorax
thymus neck & thorax
adrenal abdominopelvic (cortex&medulla)
pancreas abdominaopelvic
gonads abdominaopelvic (ovaries & testes)
releasing & inhibiting hormones produced in/by: hypothalamus target cell/tissue: anterior pituitary cells effects: regulate secretions of hormones
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) produced in/by: anterior pituitary target cell/tissue: thyroid effects: stimulates production of thyroid hormones
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) produced in/by: anterior pituitary target cell/tissue: adrenal cortex effects: stimulates secretion of hormones
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) produced in/by: anterior pituitary target cell/tissue: ovaries/testes effects: estrogen & egg development, sperm development
luteinizing hormone (LH) produced in/by: anterior pituitary target cell/tissue: mammary glands effects: ovulation, progesterone, testosterone
prolactin (PRL) produced in/by: anterior pituitary target cell/tissue: mammary glands effects: stimulates milk production
growth hormone (GH) produced in/by: anterior pituitary target cell/tissue: skeletal mm, bones effects: stimulates growth
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) pituitary produced in/by: hypothalamus, stored & released by posterior pituitary target cell/tissue: kidneys effects: stimulate water reabsorption, decrease urine production
oxytocin (OT) produced in/by: hypothalamus, stored & released by posterior pituitary target cell/tissue: uterus, mammary glands effects: stimulates contraction & milk ejection
melatonin produced in/by: pinealcytes in pineal gland target cell/tissue: hypothalamus effects: sleep rhythm
thyroxine (T4) & triiodothyronine (T3) produced in/by: follicle cells in the thyroid gland target cell/tissue: all body cells effects: metabolic rate, essential for normal growth & development
calcitonin (CT) produced in/by: parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland target cell/tissue: bones effects: deposits calcium in bones
parathyroid hormone produced in/by: chief cells in the parathyroid gland target cell/tissue: bones, renal tubulars of kidney effects:
aldosterone produced in/by: adrenal cortex target cell/tissue: renal tubulars of kidney effects: causes reabsorption of sodium out of urine into bloodstream, increases blood Na levels
cortisol produced in/by: adrenal cortex target cell/tissue: all cells effects: cope w/ stress, increase blood glucose levels, decrease inflammation
sex hormones produced in/by: adrenal cortex target cell/tissue: all body cells effects:androgens & estrogens (small amounts) for opposite sex
epinephrine norepinephrine produced in/by: adrenal medulla target cell/tissue: skeletal, cardiac, & smooth mm effects: stimulates fight or flight increase BP & HR
glucagon produced in/by: alpha cells of pancreas target cell/tissue: liver, adipose stores effects:raises blood glucose levels
insulin produced in/by: beta cells of pancreas target cell/tissue: all body cells effects:lowers blood glucose levels
androgens (testosterone) produced in/by: testes target cell/tissue:most body cells effects: secondary sex characteristics, promotes spermatogenesis, sex drive, growth in adolescence
estrogens (estradiol) produced in/by: follicles in ovary target cell/tissue: most body cells, uterus effects:secondary sex characteristics, develop uterine lining
progestins (progesterone) produced in/by: target cell/tissue: effects:
calcitrol produced in/by: kidney target cell/tissue: intestines, bone, kidney effects:stimulates calcium & phosphate ion absorption in digestive tract, stimulates osteoclasts, stimulates calcium reabsorption in kidneys
erythropoietin (EPO) produced in/by: kidney target cell/tissue: red bone marrow effects:increases red blood cell production
renin produced in/by: kidney target cell/tissue: proteins in blood, renal cortex effects:triggers renin-angiotensin mechanism
natriuretic peptides produced in/by: heart target cell/tissue: kidney, hypothalamus, adrenal gland effects:increased water loss, and sodium loss in the kidneys decreased thirst, decreased ADH decreases aldosterone (lower blood pressure & volume)
thymosins produced in/by: thymus target cell/tissue: lymphocytes effects:maturation of T lymphocytes
resistin produced in/by:adipose target cell/tissue:body cells effects:decrease insulin sensitivity
leptin produced in/by:adipose target cell/tissue:hypothalamus effects:control of appetite, sense of satiation, female reproduction
secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin produced in/by: intestines target cell/tissue: digestive system organs effects:help coordinate digestive activities
estrogen & progesterone produced in/by: placenta target cell/tissue:uterus, breast tissue effects:growth & development of fetus, prep for lactation
relaxin produced in/by: placenta target cell/tissue: joint tissues effects: loosens joints
Created by: michellerolfs