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A&P 102 Respiratory

Respiratory System Ch 19

Gas Exchange takes place between alveoli and capillaries. Inhaled oxygen moves from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries, and carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries to the air in the alveoli.
Partial Pressure Basically, a measurement of gas. Partial pressure =volume.
Lung Pressure at rest 760 mm Hg - same as atmospheric pressure
Boyle's Law P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 (P=Pressure, V=Volume)
Lipoprotein substance secreted by Type II alveolar cells . Surfactant
Respiratory Distress Syndrome Happens in premature infants. Lungs are difficult to expand and alveoli may collapse due to surface tension.
Peripheral Chemoreceptors are located in the ____ and the _________ . Aorta and Carotid Arteries
Spirometer Instrument used to measure lung volumes.
Tidal Volume Volume of air moved in one inhalation.
Minute Ventilation Volume of air oved into the lungs per minute. Breaths per minute x tidal volume. BPM x TV.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume Additional inspiration lung volume not used at rest. 3000mL
Expiratory Reserve Volume Additional expiration lung volume not used at rest 1100mL
Vital Capacity Maximum tidal volume (Inspirator Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume) 4600 mL
Residual Volume (Dead Space) Set amount of air in lungs after maximum expiration. 1200 mL
Total Lung Capacity Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume + Expiratory Reserve + Residual Volume 5800 mL
Condition in which the trachea and/or bronchi lumen decrease in size. Asthma
Condition in which aveolar walls rupture, creating larger spaces but less surface area for gas exchange. Emphysema
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Function of respiratory system. To make gas exchange possible so 02 can be used in aerobic respiration to produce energy, and to release CO2.
Describe where and how gas exchange occurs in the lungs. Between alveoli and capillaries. Inhaled oxygen moves from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries, and carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries to the air in the alveoli.
Describe what is happening during inspiration. Muscles. Size of thoracic cavity? Air pressure? Boyle's Law applies how?
Describe what is happening during expiration. Muscles. Size of thoracic cavity? Air pressure? Boyle's Law applies how?
Muscles involved and specific functions.
Relative partial pressure of 02 an d CO2 in deoxygenated and oxygenated blood, aveoli, and body tissues, and how this affects the movement of these molecules.
Location and function of CNS and respiratory control centers.
Pleural Space Thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (known as visceral and parietal) of each lung
Pleural Effusion “Wa ter on the lungs,” is the build-up of excess fluid between the layers of the pleura outside the lungs
Pneumothorax Collapsed lung, Occurs when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall. This air pushes on the outside of your lung and makes it collapse
What areas in the brainstem contain respiratory centers to control breathing? Pons and Medulla Oblongata
Oxygen is used during aerobic respiration to produce energy in the form of ATP
Special bone structures of the nose that create turbulence in nasal cavity to heat and humidify incoming air. Nasal Conchae (Superior, Middle and Inferior)
Larynx ends and trachea starts just below the Cricoid Cartilage
Membrane between thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage Cricothyroid Membrane
Superior set of folds in the larynx False Vocal Cords
Inferior set of folds in the larynx True Vocal Cords
Viscous fluid in the pleural space. Pleural/Serous Fluid
Which lung has three lobes? Right
_________ cells make mucous which traps particles. Goblet cells
Causes of asthma. Mucous membrane inflammation and excess mucous production; smooth muscle contraction.
Who is likely to develop emphysema as the walls of the lungs are damaged? Smokers
Sheet of skeletal muscle inferior to the lungs. Diaphragm
Relaxation of diaphragm causes expiration due to elasticity of lungs and tissues
Muscles that contract to elevate ribs and increase inspiratory volume (4 EPSS) External intercostal muscles, pectoralis minor, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid
Muscles that contract to pull ribs inferior and increase expiratory volume Internal Intercostal muscles
Muscles that contract and increase pressure in abdominal cavity thereby reducing volume in thoracic cavity Abdominal muscles: Internal and External obliques, rectus abdominus, transverse abdominus
T/F Blood from right ventricle is deoxygenated. True
Partial pressure of 02 and C02 in deoxygenated blood from right ventricle. PCO2=45 mmHg; P02=40 mmHg
Partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in air from outside. PCO2=40 mmHg; PO2=104 mmHg
Partial pressure of 02 and CO2 in oxygenated blood on its way to left atrium. PCO2=40mmHg; PO2=104mmHg
T/F The Partial pressure of 02 and CO2 are the same in "clean" aveolar air and blood flowing to the left atrium? T
Blood containing higher amounts of CO2 than 02. PCO2=45 mmHg; PO2=40 mmHg Deoxygenated Blood
The removal of particles from the airways as the result of the movement of the mucus coating due to the beating of the underlying cilia Mucocilliary clearance
P02 in tissue 40mmHg all the time - so oxygen is continually diffusing into tissue cells
P02 of blood after goes through the left ventricle 95 mmHg
Relationship between pressure and volume in Boyle's Law is direct or inverse? Inverse - When volume increases, pressure decreases.
Diaphragm contracts and moves inferiorly, volume within lungs increases and pressure _______. decreases (about 2 mm Hg)
Diaphragm relaxes, elasticity of lungs (increases or decreases) pressure within the lungs. increases (which pushes the air out of the lungs)
Breaks surface tension of water inside the alveoli, preventing collapse. Surfactant
Area in the brainstem involved in limiting/decreasing depth of inspiration and breathing rate. Pons
Area in the brainstem involved in increasing breathing rate and depth of inspiration. Medulla Oblongata
Receptors in the brain that detect changes in blood chemistry that affect breathing. Central Chemoreceptors
Diffuses into cerebrospinal fluid when dissolved in blood. CO2
Can be converted into carbonic acid (H2CO3) in either blood or cerebral spinal fluid. CO2
pH decreases as PCO2 increases causing acidity to rise in blood and cerebral spinal fluid due to Carbonic Acid
Which part of the brainstem detects pH drop below 7.4 and causes an increase in respiration depth and rate? Medulla Oblongata
Peripheral chemoreceptors in the aorta are called Aortic Bodies
Peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid arteries are called. Carotid Bodies
What detects changes in P02 concentration? Peripheral Chemoreceptors
Peripheral Chemoreceptors detect changes in P02 concentration and send the information to Medulla Oblongata and other brain centers.
Low oxygen will stimulate peripheral chemoreceptors causing an (increase or decrease) in respiration rate and depth. increase
Tidal Volume when breathing normally 500 mL
Measure of how much oxygen is bound to hemoglobin based on PO2 concentration. Hemoglobin Saturation
Factors that affect Hemoglobin Saturation in the blood. PCO2, pH, Temperature
Normal blood P02 range 40 - 95 mmHg
Created by: spritle



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