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Chapter 4

Acquiring Medical Language 2nd Edition

TermDefinition
costalgia kaws-TAL-jah rib pain
metatarsalgia meh-tah-tar-SAL-jah pain in the bones of the foot
ostalgia aws-TAL-jah bone pain
osteodynia aws-tee-oh-DIH-nee-ah bone pain
spondylodynia spawn-dih-loh-DIH-nee-ah vertebra pain
tibialgia tih-bee-AL-ja tibia (shin) pain
ankylosis an-kih-LOH-sis joint stiffness
arthralgia ar-THRAL-jah joint pain
arthrodynia ar-throh-DIH-nee-ah joint pain
cervicodynia sir-vih-koh-DAI-nee-ah neck pain
crepitation kreh-pih-TAY-shun a crackling sound heard in joints
genu valgum JEH-noo VAL-gum knock-kneed
genu varum JEH-noo VAH-rum bowlegged
bradykinesia bray-dih-kih-NEE-zhah slow movement
dyskinesia dis-kih-NEE-zhah inability to control movement
dystaxia dis-TAK-see-ah poor coordination
dystonia dis-TOH-nee-ah poor muscle tone
graphospasm gra-foh-SPAZM writer’s cramp
hyperkinesia hai-per-kih-NEE-zhah increase in muscle movement or activity
hypertonia hai-per-TOH-nee-yah increased muscle tone or tightness
hypokinesia hai-poh-kih-NEE-zhah decrease in muscle movement or activity
hypotonia hai-poh-TOH-nee-yah decrease in muscle tone or tightness
myalgia mai-AL-jah muscle pain
myasthenia mai-as-THEH-nee-ah muscle weakness
myodynia mai-oh-DAI-nee-ah muscle pain
myospasm mai-oh-SPAZ-um muscle spasm
tenalgia ten-AL-jah tendon pain
arthrocentesis ar-throh-sin-TEE-sis puncture of a joint
arthroscope AR-throh-skohp instrument for looking into a joint
arthroscopy ar-THRAW-skoh-pee procedure of looking into a joint
electromyogram eh-lek-troh-MAI-o-gram a record of the electrical activity of a muscle
electromyography eh-LEK-troh-mai-AW-grah-fee procedure for measuring the electrical activity of a muscle
myography mai-AW-grah-fee procedure for studying muscles
arthrogram AR-throh-gram visual record of a joint
arthrography ar-THRAW-grah-fee procedure used to examine a joint
computed axial tomography (CAT or CT) kom-PYOO-ted AK-see-al taw-MAW-grah-fee imaging procedure using a computer to produce cross sections along an axis
kyphosis kai-FOH-sis humped back; abnormal forward curvature of the upper spine
lordosis lor-DOH-sis sway back; abnormal forward curvature of the lower spine
scoliosis SKOH-lee-OH-sis crooked back; abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
carpitis kar-PAI-tis wrist inflammation
craniomalacia kray-nee-oh-mah-LAY-shah softening of the skull
exostosis eks-aws-TOH-sis an abnormal growth of bone out of another bone
fracture FRAK-shur a bone break
osteodystrophy aws-tee-oh-DIH-stroh-fee poor bone development
osteolysis aw-stee-AW-lih-sis bone loss
osteonecrosis aw-stee-oh-nih-KROH-sis death of bone
osteosclerosis aw-stee-oh-skleh-ROH-sis abnormal hardening of bone
polydactyly paw-lee-DAK-tih-lee having more than the normal number of fingers (or toes)
spondylitis spawn-dih-LAI-tis vertebra inflammation
spondylomalacia spawn-dih-loh-mah-LAY-shah softening of the vertebra
syndactyly sin-DAK-tih-lee fusion (sometimes called webbing) of fingers (or toes)
tarsoptosis tar-sawp-TOH-sis flat feet
bursolith BIR-soh-lith a stone in a bursa
effusion ee-FYOO-zhun fluid buildup
hemarthrosis hee-mar-THROH-sis blood in a joint
hydrarthrosis hai-drar-THROH-sis water (fluid) in a joint
pyarthrosis pai-ar-THROH-sis pus in a joint
atrophy A-troh-fee underdevelopment, decrease, or loss of muscle tissue
hypertrophy hai-PER-troh-fee overdevelopment of muscle tissue
myocele MAI-oh-seel hernia of muscle tissue
myolysis mai-AW-lih-sis loss of muscle tissue
myomalacia mai-oh-mah-LAY-shah softening of a muscle
myosclerosis mai-oh-skleh-ROH-sis hardening of a muscle
myotasis mai-AW-tah-sis stretching of a muscle
myotonia mai-oh-TOH-nee-ah muscle tone
ankylosing spondylitis an-kih-LOH-sing spawn-dih-LAI-tis a stiffening inflammation of the vertebrae
chondro-osteodystrophy KAWN-droh-AW-stee-oh-DIH-stroh-fee poor development of bones and cartilage
craniosynostosis KRAY-nee-oh-SIN-aw-STOH-sis the premature fusing of the skull bones
dactylitis DAK-tih-LAI-tis finger inflammation
hypertrophic spondylitis HAI-per-TROH-fik spon-dih-LAI-tis overdevelopment of the vertebrae causing inflammation
osteitis AW-stee-AI-tis bone inflammation
osteochondritis AW-stee-oh-kon-DRAI-tis inflammation of bone and cartilage
osteogenesis imperfecta AW-stee-oh-JIN-eh-sis IM-per-FEK-tah a disease in which the bones do not develop correctly, also known as brittle bone disease
osteomalacia AW-stee-oh-mah-LAY-shah softening of the bone
osteomyelitis AW-stee-oh-MAI-eh-LAI-tis inflammation of the bone and bone marrow
osteopathy AW-stee-AW-pah-thee bone disease
osteopenia AW-stee-oh-PEE-nee-yah reduction in bone volume
osteoporosis AW-stee-oh-por-OH-sis loss of bone density
spinal stenosis SPAI-nal stih-NOH-sis abnormal narrowing of the spine
spondyloarthropathy SPAWN-dih-loh-ar-THRAW-pah-thee joint disease of the vertebrae
spondylolisthesis SPAWN-dih-loh-lis-THEE-sis the slipping or dislocation of a vertebra
spondylolysis SPAWN-dih-LO-li-sis loss of vertebra structure
spondylosis SPAWN-dih-LOH-sis vertebra condition
arthritis ar-THRAI-tis joint inflammation
rheumatoid arthritis ROO-mah-toyd ar-THRAI-tis inflammation of the joints; it is called rheumatoid because its symptoms resemble those of rheumatic fever
septic arthritis SEP-tik ar-THRAI-tis inflammation of the joint caused by infection
osteoarthritis AW-stee-oh-ar-THRAI-tis inflammation of the joints, specifically those that bear weight
arthrocele AR-throh-seel hernia of a joint
arthrodysplasia AR-throh-dis-PLAY-zhah abnormal joint development
arthropathy ar-THRAW-pah-thee joint disease
arthrosclerosis AR-throh-skleh-ROH-sis hardening of the joints
bursitis bur-SAI-tis inflammation of the bursa
bursopathy bur-SAW-pah-thee disease of the bursa
subluxation sub-luk-SAY-shun partial dislocation of a joint
achondroplasia AY-kawn-droh-PLAY-zhah a defect in the formation of cartilage
chondromalacia KAWN-droh-mah-LAY-shah abnormal softening of the cartilage
costochondritis KAW-stoh-kawn-DRAI-tis inflammation of the cartilage of the rib
fasciitis FA-shee-AI-tis inflammation of the fascia
muscular dystrophy MUS-kyoo-lar DIS-troh-fee disorder characterized by poor muscle development
myoclonus MAI-oh-KLAWN-us violent muscle contraction
myopathy mai-AW-pah-thee muscle disease
myasthenia MAI-as-THEE-nee-ah muscle weakness
myofasciitis MAI-oh-FA-shee-AI-tis inflammation of muscle and fascia
myositis MAI-oh-SAI-tis muscle inflammation
necrotizing fasciitis NEH-kroh-TAI-zing FA-shee-AI-tis inflammation of the fascia, causing the death of tissue
polymyositis PAW-lee-MAI-oh-SAI-tis inflammation of multiple muscles
tardive dyskinesia TAR-div DIS-kin-EE-zhah condition characterized by the loss of muscle control
tendinitis TEN-dih-NAI-tis tendon inflammation
tendonitis TEN-dah-NAI-tis tendon inflammation
chondroma kawn-DROH-mah a tumorlike growth of cartilage tissue
myoma mai-OH-mah a muscle tumor
myosarcoma MAI-oh-sar-KOH-mah a cancerous muscle tumor
osteocarcinoma AW-stee-oh-KAR-sih-NOH-mah bone cancer tumor
osteochondroma AW-stee-oh-kon-DROH-mah a tumor made up of bone and cartilage, also known as an exostosis made up of cartilage
osteosarcoma AW-stee-oh-sar-KOH-mah cancerous tumor arising out of bone cells
analgesic A-nal-JEE-zik a drug that relieves pain
antiarthritic AN-tee-ar-THRIH-tik a drug that opposes joint inflammation
anti-inflammatory AN-tee-in-FLA-mah-TOR-ee a drug that opposes inflammation
antipyretic AN-tee-pir-ih-tik a drug that opposes fever
carpectomy kar-PEK-toh-mee removal of all or part of the wrist
costectomy kaws-TEK-toh-mee removal of a rib
craniectomy KRAY-nee-EK-toh-mee removal of a portion of the skull
craniotomy KRAY-nee-AW-toh-mee removal of a portion of the skull
external fixation EKS-tir-nal fik-SAY-shun the fixation of a fractured bone from the outside (i.e., using casts, splints, stabilizers)
internal fixation IN-tir-nal fik-SAY-shun the fixation of a fractured bone from the inside (i.e., using screws, pins, plates)
closed reduction klohzd ree-DUK-shun returning bones to their proper position without the use of surgery
open reduction OH-pen ree-DUK-shun returning bones to their proper position through the use of surgery
metacarpectomy MEH-tah-kar-PEK-toh-mee removal of a bone in the hand
orthotics or-THAW-tiks a device that aids in the straightening or stabilizing of a part of the body
ostectomy aws-TEK-toh-mee removal of a bone
osteectomy aws-tee-EK-toh-mee removal of a bone
osteoclasia AWS-tee-oh-KLAY-zhah the surgical breaking of a bone (often done to remedy a deformity)
osteoplasty AWS-tee-oh-PLAS-tee reconstruction of a bone
osteotomy AWS-tee-AW-toh-mee incision into a bone
prosthesis praws-THEE-sis a device that is added to a body to replace a missing part or lost function
spondylosyndesis SPAWN-dih-loh-sin-DEE-sis fusing together of multiple vertebrae
sternotomy stir-NAW-toh-mee incision into the sternum
tarsectomy tar-SEK-toh-mee removal of all or a portion of the ankle
tarsoclasia TAR-soh-KLAY-zhah surgical fracture of the ankle (i.e., to treat clubfoot)
arthrectomy ar-THREK-toh-mee removal of a joint
arthroclasia AR-throh-KLAY-zhah the therapeutic breaking of a joint to allow for increased mobility
arthrodesis AR-throh-DEE-sis surgical fixation of a joint
arthrolysis ar-THRAW-lih-sis loosening a stiff joint
arthroplasty AR-throh-PLAS-tee reconstruction of a joint
arthrotomy ar-THRAW-toh-mee incision into a joint
bursectomy bir-SEK-toh-mee removal of a bursa
bursotomy bir-SAW-toh-mee incision into a bursa
chondrectomy kawn-DREK-toh-mee removal of cartilage
chondroplasty KAWN-droh-PLAS-tee reconstruction of cartilage
fasciectomy FA-shee-EK-toh-mee removal of fascia
fasciodesis FA-shoh-DEE-sis binding of fascia
fascioplasty FA-shoh-PLAS-tee reconstruction of fascia
fasciorrhaphy fah-SHOR-ah-fee suturing of fascia
fasciotomy FA-shee-AW-toh-mee incision into fascia
myectomy mai-EK-toh-mee removal of muscle
myodesis MAI-oh-DEE-sis binding of a muscle
myomectomy MAI-oh-MEK-toh-mee removal of a muscle tumor
myoplasty MAI-oh-PLAS-tee muscle reconstruction
myorrhaphy mai-OR-ah-fee muscle suture
myotomy mai-AW-toh-mee incision into muscle
tendectomy ten-DEK-toh-mee removal of a tendon
tendoplasty TEN-doh-PLAS-tee reconstruction of a tendon
tenodesis TEN-oh-DEE-sis binding of a tendon
tenolysis ten-AW-lih-sis freeing/loosening a tendon
tenonectomy TEN-oh-NEK-toh-mee removal of a tendon
tenoplasty TEN-oh-PLAS-tee reconstruction of a tendon
tenorrhaphy ten-OR-ah-fee suture of a tendon
tenotomy ten-AW-toh-mee incision into a tendon
ACL anterior cruciate ligament
MCL medial collateral ligament
LCL lateral collateral ligament
PCL posterior cruciate ligament
C1–C7 cervical (of the neck) vertebrae
T1–T12 thoracic (of the chest) vertebrae
L1–L5 lumbar (of the loin) vertebrae
S1–S5 sacral vertebrae
DTR deep tendon reflexes (this is what doctors are testing when they tap the knee with a reflex hammer)
EMG electromyogram
FROM full range of motion
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
OA osteoarthritis
ORIF open reduction internal fixation
PT physical therapy
RA rheumatoid arthritis
RICE rest, ice, compression, elevation
ROM range of motion
WB weight bearing
WBAT weight bearing as tolerated
Created by: sdolic