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life and physics ati

ati 6th edition study guide

monomers, combine using simple dehydration reactions with other similar molecules to make biological polymers called macromolecules
the digestive process breaks down the bonds between monomers by hydrolysis
There are four types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
____ monomers have the general formula CnH2nOn carbohydrate
____ are proteins composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon, and are often referred to as “fats.” lipids
____ monomers are called amino acids. protein
___ are an important class of proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without being consumed in the reaction. enzymes
___ speed up reactions by lowering the energy required by the system to initiate the reaction. enzymes
exergonic means release energy
endergonice means require energy
Energy in livingorganisms is typically supplied and released as atp
the two nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids
____ is typically a double stranded helix, is found in chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell, and stores hereditary information. DNA
DNA has four nitrogenous bases which are adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine
DNA contains ___ sugar deoxyribose
RNA contains __ sugar ribose
RNA contains four nitrogenous bases which are adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil
RNA is typically a __ molecule single-strand
____ Sugars and starches, which the body breaks down into glucose. carbohydrates
____ Involving absorption of heat. endothermic
____ involving release of heat exothermic
____ Fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water. lipids
____ A molecule that contains a large number of atoms. macromolecules
____ A molecule that can bond to identical molecules to form a polymer. monomers
_____ Long molecules made of nucleotides; DNA and RNA. nucleic acids
____ A substance composedof similar units bonded together. polymer
____ Molecules composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. proteins
s.2.1 1. Which is the best description of an enzyme? A.reduces initial energy 4 reaction to take place B.complement is similar in diff cells of the same org C. can operate under diff con 4 reaction D.composed of monomeric units called monosaccharides A
S.2.1.2 3. Which of the following is a carbohydrate with structural functions? A. Gluten B. Lipoprotein C. Glycogen D. Chitin D
the monomer for proteins are? amino acids
the functions of proteins are? catalysis: enzyme, keratin and muscle structure, transport: hemoglobin, immune: antibodies
the food example for proteins are? meat, egg whites
the monomer example for carbohydrates are? monosaccharides
the functions of carbohydrates are structure: cellulose, chitin, storage: glycogen and amylose structure, recognition: glycoproteins, glycolipids
the food example for carbohydrates are bread, potatoes
the monomer for lipids are fatty acids
the function of lipids are phospholipids: structure, adipose: storage
the food example for lipids are oils, butters
the monomer for nucleic acids are nucleotides
the functions of nucleic acids are Heredity: DNA and RNA regulation: RNA
the food example for nucleic acids are found in small amounts of all food
Genes are DNA-based codes, packaged in units called chromosomes
____ DNA) is a macromolecule that contains coded instructions for the body to produce proteins. deoxyribonucleic acid
These DNA Nucleotides letters are arranged in three-letter combinations to make 64 possible “words”, called codons
____ is a“sentence” made of a specific order of codons that produces a protein. gene
____ is a “chapter” linking sentences with “punctuation marks” that regulate where a gene starts and ends, and which genes are read in which cell. chromosome
DNA is composed of letters that are always in a specific order these pairs are? (2) A-T and G-C
___ One of two strands a chromosome divides into during mitosis. chromatid
____ A structure made of protein and one molecule of DNA. chromosome
____ The sugar obtained from DNA by hydrolysis. deoxyribose sugar
____ The material that contains genetic information. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
___ A string of DNA that is the basic unit of heredity. gene
___ The attraction between hydrogen atoms and highly electronegative atoms. hydrogen bond
___ The building block of DNA and RNA. nucleotide
___ the core of an atom nucleus
____ A phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms. phosphate group
Before a cell divides, chromosomes can be copied to make two identical copies called chromatids
S.2.2.1 1. In which of the following directions is DNA read? A. Left to right B. Top to bottom C. 5’ to 3’ D. 3’ to 5’ C
S.2.2.2 2. A segment of DNA that contains a word made of three nucleotides is referred to as which of the following? A. Gene B. Codon C. Chromosome D. Genome B
___ was a 19th-century monk who bred peas to study how characteristics are passed from parents to offspring. gregor mendel
__ traits are passed down from from parents to offspring through gametes (eggs or sperm) inherited
___ traits are those such as culturally influenced behavior noninheritied
____ inheritance (mendels first law or law of segregation) refers to inheritance of a single trait, such as a flower color. monohybrid
homozygous can be dominant or recessive homozygous just means that they have the same trait (ex. PP or pp)
having 2 different alleles on the two chromosomes are called heterozygous (Pp)
___ inheritance (mendel's second law or law of independent assortment) examines the two separates traits like flower color. (ex white, purple) dihybrid
___ a cross between parents heterozygous at two specific genes. dihybrid cross
__ refers to the most powerful trait or the allele for that trait. dominant
__ the genetic makeup of an individual genotype
____ transmission of characteristics to offspring inheritance
___ inheritance of traits that follow gregor mendel's two laws and the principal of dominance mendelian inheritance
___ a cross between parents heterozygous at one specific gene monohybrid cross
__ inheritance of traits that do not follow mendelian patterns of inheritance non-mendelian inheritance
___ physical appearance of a trait formed by genetics and environment phenotype
___ refers to traits that are masked if dominant alleles are also present; also refers to the allele for that trait recessive
___ is the fundamental constituent of matter that retains the properties of an element atom
___ is the smallest unit that has a unique identity atom
there are ____ elements in the periodic table 118
atoms are all composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
atoms undergo ____ by gaining or losing electrons to achieve stability chemical reactions
An atom’s properties can be inferred by its position on the periodic table, which relates to the number of _____ in its outermost shell valence electrons
protons charge and mass charge- +1 mass 1
Neutrons charge and mass charge- 0 mass- 1
Electron charge and mass charge- -1 mass-0
The numbers of neutrons in different atoms of the same element can vary, and these atoms are called isotopes
number of ___ gives the atomic number of an atom protons
the number of __ plus ___ gives the atomic mass of the atom protons plus neutrons
atoms are neutral and have equal numbers of ____ and ____ protons and electrons
The periodic table arranges atoms by increasing _____ (# of protons) atomic number
____ on the periodic table are shown in decimal form to account for the natural abundance of the element’s various isotopes. atomic masses
____ A negatively charged ion. anion
____ The most basic complete unit of an element. atom
____ A positively charged ion. cation
______ A chemical bond in which electron pairs are shared between atoms. covalent bond
_____ A negatively charged atomic particle. electron
_____ A column of elements in the periodic table group
____ . A positively or negatively charged atom or molecule. ion
_____ The bond between two oppositely charged ions. ionic bond
on the periodic table the periods go down
on the periodic table the groups go across
on the periodic table group 1-2 are considered s orbitals
on the periodic table group 3-12 are considered d orbitals
on the periodic table group 13-18 are considered p orbitals
on the periodic table group 3-18 period 7-8 are considered f orbitals
the s orbital can only accommodate max ___ electrons 2
the p orbital can only accommodate max __ electrons 6
the d orbital can only accommodate max ___ electrons 18
the f orbital can only accommodate max _____ electrons 32
period 1 of the periodic table only has ____ orbital s
period 2 of the periodic table only has ___ orbitals s, p
period 3 of the periodic table only has __ orbitals s, p, d
period 4 of the periodic table only has ____ orbitals s, p, d, f
____ are in the outermost shell of an atom, and participate in chemical reactions (or bonding). valence electrons
atoms are most stable when they have a full valence shell
charged atoms are called ions
negatively charged ions are called anions
positively charged ions are called cations
Bonds that are formed by transfer of electrons between atoms are called ionic bonds
compounds with _____ are soluble in water and conduct electricity. ionic bonds
shared bonds are called covalent bonds
___ An atomic particle with no electric charge. neutron
____ An area around the nucleus where an electron can be found. orbital
___ One of seven horizontal rows in the periodic tables. period
___ The table of elements expressed as columns and rows. periodic table
___ A positively charged atomic particle. proton
____ An electron in an outer orbital that can form bonds with other atoms. valence electron
s.2.4.2 2. A period in the periodic table represents which of the following? A. Shared atomic properties B. Increasing energy levels C. Decreasing valence electrons D. Shared neutron numbers B
S.2.4.3 3. A chemical bond between two atoms contains which of the following? A. One electron B. Two electrons C. Fused atomic nuclei D. Electron and proton fusion B
___ is the ratio of mass to volume. density
the formula for density is g/cm^3
___ the temperature at which a liquid boils and turns into vapor boiling point
___ characteristics of a material that presents during a chemical reaction or chemical change chemical properties
___ the passive movement of substances from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration diffusion
____ properties that depend on the size of the sample of a substance extensive properties
___ properties that do not depend on the size of the sample of a substance intensive properties
___ the ability of a metal to be shaped malleability
__ the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid melting point
___ a type of covalent bond in which two atoms share electrons at equal distances from the atomic nuclei nonpolar
____ passage of fluid through a membrane osmosis
___ observable properties of matter physical properties
____a type of covalent bond in which two atoms share electrons are not at equal distances from the atomic nuclei polar
__ the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius specific heat capacity
S.2.5.2 which is true about osmosis a.is the movement of water across membrane b. is movement from low to a high concentration c. osmosis requires a large amt of energy to move water d. osmosis pertains to all molecules moving across the membrane A
___ matter has definite volume and shape solid
____ matter has definite volume but not a definite shape liquid
___ has no definite volume or shape gas
____ the transition of liquid to gas when a substance has acquired enough thermal energy boiling
___ the transition of a gas to a liquid condensation
____ the temperature at which the liquid and gas phases of a substance has the same density critical point
___ the transition of a substance from gas to solid without passing through the liquid state deposition
__ the transition of liquid to gas that happens with or without the substance acquiring enough thermal energy to reach its boiling point evaporation
__ the transition of a liquid to a solid freezing
__ is highly compressible gas
___ a graph of physical states of a substance under varying temperature and pressure phase diagram
___ the transition of a solid to a liquid nelting
___ the transition of a substance from solid to gas without passing through the liquid state sublimation
___ the temperature and pressure at which solid, liquid, and vapor phases of a pure substance coexist triple point
S.2.6.1 which of the following phases changes requires the addition of heat? A. freezing B. condensation C. Melting D. deposition C
S.2.6.2 which of the following is true of gases. A. gases have definite shape and volume B. Gases have no definite shape, but they have definite volume C. Gases have definite shape but not volume D. Gases have no definite shape and no volume D
___ ph less than 7 acid
___ ph greater than 7 base
ph of 7 is neutral
__ a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing permanent chemical change catalyst
___ mathematic representation of a chemical reaction chemical equation
___ a substance made of two or more elements compond
___ pure substances that cannot be broken into simpler substances element
__ a substance made of two or more elements compound
__ a substance produced by a living thing that acts as a catalyst enzyme
__-a substance that is a good conductor of electricity and heat, forms cations by loss of electrons, and basic oxides and hydroxides metal
___ any element or substance that is not metal nonmetal
___ the measure of acidity or alkalinity ph
__ a chemical compound formed from the reaction of an acid with a base, with at least part of the hydrogen of the acid replaced by a cation salt
S.2.7.1 which of the following substances contains an ionic bond? A. CO B. NO2 C.SO4 D. CaO D
S.2.7.2 in the following equation, what are the reactants? AgNO3 + NaCL -> AgCl + NaNO3 A. AgNo3, NaCL, AgCL, NaNO3 B. AgNO3, NaCL C. NaCL, AgCL D. AgCL, NaNO3 B
S.2.7.3 true or false a substance with a ph of 3.7 is considered a base? False
centi is one hundredth
deca is ten
hecta is one hundred
kilo one thousand
milli is one thousandth
____ A narrow cylinder used to measure liquid volume. graduated cylinder
___ measurement of distance from end to end length
___ measurement of volume liter
__ is international system of unit si units
___ amount of space something takes up volume
____ A device used for precise measurement of small amounts of liquid. volumetric pipette
S.3.1.1 1. Which of the following is the most appropriate unit to measure the length (distance) between Los Angeles and San Francisco? A. Liter B. Meter C. Kilometer D. Centimeter C
S.3.1.2 2. What does the prefix milli mean? A. 1,000 B. 100 C. 0.01 D. 0.001 D
S.3.1.3 3. Which of the following tools could be used to measure the mass of a sample? A. Triple beam balance B. Volumetric pipette C. Graduated cylinder D. Ruler A
_____ prejudice in favor of an idea bias
___ based on observation empirical
___ a collection of information data
___ an end judgement based on data conclusion
___ a scientific procedure to test a hypothesis experiment
S.3.2.3 Which of the following is the term used to describe a specific experimental condition that is changed to measure its effect A. data B. Variable C. control D. bias B
__ the element that makes something happen cause
__ the result of a cause effect
___ organization of cause and effect relationships sequencing
S.3.3.1 Which of the following units is most appropriate for measuring the weight of an adult A. grams B. kilograms C. milligrams D. micrograms B
S.3.3.2 Which of the following units is appropriate for measuring the circumference of the earth? A. kilometers B. meters C. centimeters d. micrometers A
S.3.3.3 Which of the following can lead to emphysema. which is severe respiratory problem? A. high salt diet B. alcohol consumption C. smoking cigarettes D. sleep deprivation C
___ something kept constant during and experiemnt control variable
____ what is measured in an experiment as a possible effect dependent variable
___ an educated guess that serves as a starting point for further testing independent variable
___ something that changes variable
Created by: xokitty17xo