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life and physics ati

ati 6th edition study guide

monomers, combine using simple dehydration reactions with other similar molecules to make biological large polymers called macromolecules
the digestive process breaks down the bonds between monomers by hydrolysis or adding water
There are four types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
____ monomers have the general formula CnH2nOn carbohydrate
____ are proteins composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon, and are often referred to as “fats.” lipids
____ monomers are called amino acids. protein
___ are an important class of proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without being consumed in the reaction. enzymes
___ speed up reactions by lowering the energy required by the system to initiate the reaction. enzymes
exergonic means release energy
endergonice means require energy
Energy in livingorganisms is typically supplied and released as atp
the two nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids
____ is typically a double stranded helix, is found in chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell, and stores hereditary information. DNA
DNA has four nitrogenous bases which are adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine
DNA contains ___ sugar deoxyribose
RNA contains __ sugar ribose
RNA contains four nitrogenous bases which are adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil
RNA is typically a __ molecule single-strand
____ Sugars and starches, which the body breaks down into glucose. carbohydrates
____ Involving absorption of heat. endothermic
____ involving release of heat exothermic
____ Fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water. lipids
____ A molecule that contains a large number of atoms. macromolecules
____ A molecule that can bond to identical molecules to form a polymer. monomers
_____ Long molecules made of nucleotides; DNA and RNA. nucleic acids
____ A substance composedof similar units bonded together. polymer
____ Molecules composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. proteins
the monomer for proteins are? amino acids
the functions of proteins are? catalysis: enzyme, keratin and muscle structure, transport: hemoglobin, immune: antibodies
the food example for proteins are? meat, egg whites
the monomer example for carbohydrates are? monosaccharides
the functions of carbohydrates are structure: cellulose, chitin, storage: glycogen and amylose structure, recognition: glycoproteins, glycolipids
the food example for carbohydrates are bread, potatoes
the monomer for lipids are fatty acids
the function of lipids are phospholipids: structure, adipose: storage
the food example for lipids are oils, butters
the monomer for nucleic acids are nucleotides
the functions of nucleic acids are Heredity: DNA and RNA regulation: RNA
the food example for nucleic acids are found in small amounts of all food
Genes are DNA-based codes, packaged in units called chromosomes
____ DNA) is a macromolecule that contains coded instructions for the body to produce proteins. deoxyribonucleic acid
These DNA Nucleotides letters are arranged in three-letter combinations to make 64 possible “words”, called codons
____ is a“sentence” made of a specific order of codons that produces a protein. gene
____ is a “chapter” linking sentences with “punctuation marks” that regulate where a gene starts and ends, and which genes are read in which cell. chromosome
DNA is composed of letters that are always in a specific order these pairs are? (2) A-T and G-C
___ One of two strands a chromosome divides into during mitosis. chromatid
____ A structure made of protein and one molecule of DNA. chromosome
____ The sugar obtained from DNA by hydrolysis. deoxyribose sugar
____ The material that contains genetic information. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
___ A string of DNA that is the basic unit of heredity. gene
___ a noncovalent bond resulting from the attractive interaction between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom bonded to another electronegative atom. hydrogen bond
___ The building block of DNA and RNA. nucleotide
___ the core of an atom nucleus
____ A phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms. phosphate group
Before a cell divides, chromosomes can be copied to make two identical copies called chromatids
___ was a 19th-century monk who bred peas to study how characteristics are passed from parents to offspring. gregor mendel
__ traits are passed down from from parents to offspring through gametes (eggs or sperm) inherited
___ traits are those such as culturally influenced behavior noninheritied
____ inheritance (mendels first law or law of segregation) refers to inheritance of a single trait, such as a flower color. monohybrid
homozygous can be dominant or recessive homozygous just means that they have the same trait (ex. PP or pp)
having 2 different alleles on the two chromosomes are called heterozygous (Pp)
___ inheritance (mendel's second law or law of independent assortment) examines the two separates traits like flower color. (ex white, purple) dihybrid
___ a cross between parents heterozygous at two specific genes. dihybrid cross
__ refers to the most powerful trait or the allele for that trait or present 100% of the time. dominant
__ the genetic makeup of an individual (combination of two allesles) genotype
____ transmission of characteristics to offspring inheritance
___ inheritance of traits that follow gregor mendel's two laws and the principal of dominance mendelian inheritance
__ inheritance of traits that do not follow mendelian patterns of inheritance with simple dominance recessive for example blood (A, B. O) non-mendelian inheritance
___ physical appearance of a trait formed by genetics and environment phenotype
___ refers to traits that are masked if dominant alleles are also present; also refers to the allele for that trait. Can disappear and reappear recessive
___ is the fundamental constituent of matter that retains the properties of an element atom
___ is the smallest unit that has a unique identity atom
there are ____ known elements in the periodic table and __ occur naturally 118, 92
atoms are all composed of ___, ___, and ___, also known as _____. protons, neutrons, and electrons, subatomic particles
atoms undergo ____ by gaining or losing electrons to achieve stability chemical reactions
An atom’s properties can be inferred by its position on the periodic table, which relates to the number of _____ in its outermost shell valence electrons
protons charge and mass charge- +1 mass 1
Neutrons charge and mass charge- 0 mass- 1
Electron charge and mass charge- -1 mass-0
The numbers of neutrons in different atoms of the same element can vary, and these atoms are called isotopes
number of ___ gives the atomic number of an atom protons
the number of __ plus ___ gives the atomic mass of the atom and each one only has a mass of ___ protons plus neutrons, 1
atoms are neutral and have equal numbers of ____ and ____ protons and electrons
The periodic table arranges atoms by increasing _____ (# of protons) atomic number
____ on the periodic table are shown in decimal form to account for the natural abundance of the element’s various isotopes. atomic masses
____ A negatively charged ion. anion
____ The most basic complete unit of an element. atom
____ A positively charged ion. cation
______ A chemical bond in which electron pairs are shared between atoms. covalent bond
_____ A negatively charged atomic particle. electron
_____ A column of elements in the periodic table group
____ . A positively or negatively charged atom or molecule. ion
_____ The bond between two oppositely charged ions. ionic bond
on the periodic table the periods go down
on the periodic table the groups go across
on the periodic table group 1-2 are considered s orbitals
on the periodic table group 3-12 are considered d orbitals
on the periodic table group 13-18 are considered p orbitals
on the periodic table group 3-18 period 7-8 are considered f orbitals
the s orbital can only accommodate max ___ electrons 2
the p orbital can only accommodate max __ electrons 6
the d orbital can only accommodate max ___ electrons 18
the f orbital can only accommodate max _____ electrons 32
period 1 of the periodic table only has ____ orbital s
period 2 of the periodic table only has ___ orbitals s, p
period 3 of the periodic table only has __ orbitals s, p, d
period 4 of the periodic table only has ____ orbitals s, p, d, f
____ are in the outermost shell of an atom, and participate in chemical reactions (or bonding). valence electrons
atoms are most stable when they have a full valence shell
charged atoms are called ions
negatively charged ions are called anions
positively charged ions are called cations
Bonds that are formed by transfer of electrons between atoms are called ionic bonds
compounds with _____ are soluble in water and conduct electricity. ionic bonds/compounds
two or more atoms sharing electrons to become more stable are called covalent bonds
___ An atomic particle with no electric charge. neutron
____ An area around the nucleus where an electron can be found. orbital
___ One of seven horizontal rows in the periodic tables. period
___ The table of elements expressed as columns and rows. periodic table
___ A positively charged atomic particle. proton
____ An electron in an outer orbital that can form bonds with other atoms. valence electron
___ is the ratio of mass to volume. density
the formula for density is g/cm^3
___ the temperature at which a liquid boils and turns into vapor (gas) boiling point
___ characteristics of a material that presents during a chemical reaction or chemical change chemical properties
___ the passive movement of substances from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration diffusion
____ properties that depend on the size of the sample of a substance extensive properties
___ properties that do not depend on the size of the sample of a substance intensive properties
___ the ability of a metal to be shaped malleability
__ the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid melting point
___ a type of covalent bond in which two atoms share electrons at equal distances from the atomic nuclei nonpolar
____ passage of fluid through a membrane osmosis
___ observable properties of substance and those that can change the state without changing the identity of the substance ex: boiling water physical properties
____a type of covalent bond in which two atoms share electrons are not at equal distances from the atomic nuclei polar
__ the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius specific heat capacity
___ matter has definite volume and shape solid
____ matter has definite volume but not a definite shape liquid
___ has no definite volume or shape gas
____ the transition of liquid to gas when a substance has acquired enough thermal energy boiling
___ the transition of a gas to a liquid condensation
____ the temperature at which the liquid and gas phases of a substance has the same density critical point
___ the transition of a substance from gas to solid without passing through the liquid state deposition
__ the transition of liquid to gas that happens with or without the substance acquiring enough thermal energy to reach its boiling point evaporation
__ the transition of a liquid to a solid freezing
__ is highly compressible gas
___ a graph of physical states of a substance under varying temperature and pressure phase diagram
___ the transition of a solid to a liquid nelting
___ the transition of a substance from solid to gas without passing through the liquid state sublimation
___ the temperature and pressure at which solid, liquid, and vapor phases of a pure substance coexist triple point
___ ph less than 7 acid
___ ph greater than 7 base
ph of 7 is neutral
__ a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing permanent chemical change catalyst
___ mathematic representation of a chemical reaction chemical equation
___ a substance made of two or more elements compond
___ pure substances that cannot be broken into simpler substances element
__ a substance made of two or more elements compound
__ a substance produced by a living thing that acts as a catalyst enzyme
__-a substance that is a good conductor of electricity and heat, forms cations by loss of electrons, and basic oxides and hydroxides metal
___ any element or substance that is not metal nonmetal
___ the measure of acidity or alkalinity (amount of hydrogen ions (h+). ph
__ a chemical compound formed from the reaction of an acid with a base, with at least part of the hydrogen of the acid replaced by a cation salt
centi is one hundredth
deca is ten
hecta is one hundred
kilo one thousand
milli is one thousandth
____ A narrow cylinder used to measure liquid volume. graduated cylinder
___ measurement of distance from end to end length
___ measurement of volume liter
__ is international system of unit si units
___ amount of space something takes up volume
____ A device used for precise measurement of small amounts of liquid. volumetric pipette
_____ prejudice in favor of an idea bias
___ based on observation empirical
___ a collection of information data
___ an end judgement based on data conclusion
___ a scientific systematic procedure to test a hypothesis experiment
__ the element that makes something happen cause
__ the result of a cause effect
___ organization of cause and effect relationships sequencing
___ something kept constant during and experiment control variable
____ what is measured in an experiment as a possible effect (EFFECT) dependent variable
___ an educated guess that serves as a starting point for further testing (CAUSE) independent variable
___ something that changes variable
a ___ produced energy for the cell. it contains genetic information for the mitochondrion only, not for the entire organism. mitochondrion
For DNA to RNA A joins to - T joins to - C joins to - A- U T- A C - G
every cell in the human body has these 3 parts plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
every cell has also has an additional structure called ___ that carry out metabolic life functions (also called ______ ) necessary to maintain the cell. organelles, cellular functions
The ____ membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer embedded with _____. plasma, proteins
The embedded _____ channels are specific for individual molecules in and out, making the membrane selectively ____. protein, permeable
The ____ is the semi-fluid substance inside of the membrane that contains the organelles. cytoplasm
The ___is the most prominent organelle in the cell and is ___ in appearance. It is protected by a ___ membrane and contains genetic material in the form of the nucleic acid DNA, nucleus, spherical, double
____- clear pale yellow component of blood that carries red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets throughout the body. plasma
___ a large organelle within a cell that houses the chromosomes. nucleus
____ processes that include growth, metabolism, replication, protein synthesis, and movement cellular functions
___ a specialized part of a cell that as a specific function organelle
the DNA encodes for all the proteins necessary for the cell and in turn the organism to carry out life functions. this is why the ___ is often referred to as the control center, or brain, of the cell. nucleus
When new ___ are needed for growth or repair of tissues, the DNA is replicated in its entirety and the cell enters into the process of cell division or ____. cells, mitosis
___ cell division in eukaryotes that produces two daughter cells, each with the same chromosomes number as the parent cell. mitosis
The rough _____ is continuous with the outer membrane of the nucleus. endoplasmic reticulum
It is composed of ___, flattened ___ covered with ribosomes. parallel, sacs
The ribosomes are the site of the synthesis of the protein that is encoded by the DNA in the ____. nucleus
The smooth _____ has no ribosomes and functions as the site of __ production and storage endoplasmic reticulum, lipid
Once proteins are made on the ribosomes of the rough ____, they are packaged in parts of the membrane into vesicles and transported to the ___. endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex
after proteins are transported to the golgi complex the protein vesicles fuse with the golgi, where they are ___ and packaged and transported to where they are needed. modified
the Golgi is often referred to as the ____ and ___ department of the cell. The Golgi is also responsible for packaging digestive __ within vesicles. manufacturing and shipping, enzymes
These vesicles of powerful digestive enzymes are known as ___ and are necessary for cellular metabolism or recycling of old cell materials lysosomes
For a cell to complete cellular processes, it must create usable cellular ____ from the energy stored in the __ of the foods human eat. energy, chemical bond
The __, and organelle often referred to as the ___ of the cell, changes food energy into usable cellular energy (ATP), via the process known as cellular ____. mitochondria, power house, respiration
The usable cell energy is _____ to power a contraction. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
___ a molecule that contains a large number of atoms macromolecules
the human body is mostly water about __ by weight. 70%
THe small molecules in the cell are mostly of these four types ___, ___, ___, and ___. the rest of the body about 25% are ____ sugars, fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides, macromolecules
there are three classes of macromolecules ___, ___, and ___ ever macromolecule is a __ built by linking together small subunits polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, polymer
___ carbohydrate polymers made of many sugar molecules polysaccharides
___ molecules composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds ( proteins
___ long molecules made of nucleotides: DNA and RNA nucleic acids
____ a substance composed of similar units bonded together polymer
___ are built from sugar molecules. the bond that holds one sugar to the next is a __. polysaccharides, covalent bond
___ a chemical bond in which electron pairs are shared between atoms. covalent bond
forming a __ in a macromolecule requires an input of energy, which usually comes from the removal of a phosphate from ___ or a similar high-energy molecules. covalent bond, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
ATP drives a water molecule from th e2 adjacent sugar molecules, enabling the ___ to form. Forming a __ by displacing a water molecule is called a ___ also called a ____. covalent bond, covalent bond, dehydration reaction, condensation reaction
build proteins from amino acids
build nucleic acids from nucleotides
sugar, protein, and nucleic acids are macromolecules built by __ with an input of energy that drives __ to join together via ____. dehydration, monomers, covalent bonds
the function of a macromolecule is dependent on its 3 dimensional shape
covalent bonds are strong and require an input of ___ to form energy
other bonds are noncovalent bonds called ___ and ____. hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds
individual ____ are weak enough to form spontaneously but also easily break. noncovalent bonds
polysaccharides and sugars are better known as ____ carbohydrates
the analogous energy storehouse in animals and humans is glycogen
starch and glycogen are polymers made of glucose
The chemical reaction that converts a polymer of glycogen into monomers of glucose is called a _____ because molecules of water lyse the covalent bonds. hydrolysis reaction
___ is essentially the opposite of a dehydration reaction hydrolysis
every protein is built from the same raw materials- ___ kinds of amino acids 20
The ___ are linked together by a dehydration reaction to form a covalent bond that is called a ____. amino acids, peptide bond
a ___ is because some proteins are only functional when several protein subunits come together. subunit
Proteins are the workhorses of the cell. For example virtually every chemical reaction in a cell and there are thousands is carried out by an ___. enzyme
nearly every enzyme is a protein that ___ (___) a chemical reaction by reducing the activation ___. catalyzes (speeds up), energy
each monomer of RNA is a type of ___ called a ____ which is made up of a _____ linked on one side to a trio of phosphates and on the other side to a _____. nucleotide, ribonucleotide, ribose sugar, nitrogenous base
____ fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water lipids
___ are sometimes grouped among the macromolecules, but lipids are not ___. This is because they are not built from monomers joined together via dehydration reactions. lipids, polymers,
___ are a diverse set of molecules that are grouped together because of how they interact with water. lipids
Lipids are ___ meaning they do not dissolve in water. This is because every lipid is made up mostly of ___-___ and ___-___ bonds. These types of bonds do not interact with water. hydrophobic, carbon-carbon, carbon-hydrogen
___ store five times as much energy as a comparable amount of a carbohydrate triglycerides
a third class of lipids is steroids, which includes __ and the hormones __ and ___. cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogens
phospholipids and triglycerides are both made from the same components __ and ___. fatty acids and glycerol
__ are long hydrocarbon chains with a carboxylic acid on one end. fatty acids
__ is a type of sugar glycerol
some fatty acids are made entirely of single bonds between the carbon atoms such an arrangement is called a ___ saturated fatty acid
other fatty acids that contain a double bond between two of the carbon atoms are called ____. unsaturated
in all cells and all cellular organisms, the molecule that carries information is __ DNA
___ also provides the blueprint or recipes for maintaining cellular function. DNA
DNA is a maromolecule and a polymer made up of ___ linked together in a long chain. Monomers of DNA the ____ form __ bonds with one another. monomers, nucleotides, covalent
Each ____ bond forms when a nucleotide in the growing DNA chain forms a bond with a free ____ via a dehydration reaction. The resulting covalent bond is called a ____ bond. covalent, nucleotide, phosphodiester
___ a covalent bond that links two nucleotides together in a nucleic acid molecule. phosphodiester bond
deoxyribonucleotide is a kind of ___; highly modified sugar that is the monomer found in ___. sugar, DNA
the four DNA/ nucleotide bases are called ____ bases and they are ___, ___, ___, and ____. nitrogenous, adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
DNA is made of two _____ - two long strands of nucleotides- wound around each other. polynucleotides
Hydrogen bonds are a type of ____ bond. noncovalent
Adenine only hydrogen bonds with ____ thymine
Guanine only hydrogen bonds with ___ cytosine
The order of the bases on a strand of a DNA double helix encodes the information that enables cells to ____, ___, and _____. function, adapt, and reproduce
Nearly all of the DNA in human cell is packaged into the cells _____, a large organelle whose primary job is to sequester the DNA and its encoded information. nucleus
The complete set of genetic information in a cell is called its ____. genome
Humans possess ___ unique pieces of DNA. Each one is called a ____. each chromosome has a matching pair so humans have __ pairs of chromosomes. Humans have two copies of our __ inside the nucleus of every one of our cells. 46, chromosome, 23, genome
If all the DNA from one human cell was stretched out it would be ___ long. An average human chromosome stretched out would be about ___ long. 6 feet (2 meters)2 inches (4 centimeters)
The nucleus of a typical cell is approximately __ in diameter 6 microns
chromosomes are called _ genes
___ are sequences of DNA that encode something that the cell can use. Most often genes encode for __. Genes, proteins
Some genes encode RNA molecules, like transfer RNA ____ and ribosomal RNA ____. trna, rrna
genes are bound by proteins whose jobs are to decode the information in the gene or to control if and when a gene is decoded. This is called ____ regulatory binding sites
___ are organisms that have a nucleus inside each cell. eukaryotes
non-gene DNA purpose is not clear so scientists refer to it as ____. junk DNA
a gene is also a unit of ____. This means that genes that get passed from one generation to the next. heredity
Because __ carry the instructions for making proteins or RNA and these molecules shape the traits of the whole ____, then faithfully transferring copies of these instructions ensures that he next generation inherits the traits that enabled their parents to survive. gene, organism,
___ are sentences within the DNA code and words are the ____. genes, codons
___ triplets of bases that each code for an amino acid codons
there are ___ common amino acids that make up nearly every protein in nearly every organism on earth. 20
___ the set of 64 codons that specify the 20 amino acids genetic code
DNA-->____-->____ RNA--> Protein
To make an __ copy from DNA gene, two hydrogen bonded strands of a double helix unwind near the beginning of the gene. Proteins then use one of the unwound DNA strands as a ___ and build a ___ of RNA. This is possible because of the ___ rules. RNA, template, complementary strand, base-pairing
A and __ base pair T
G and __ base pair C
instead of thymine RNA uses a similar molecule called ___. Uracil
the RNA that is made of DNA strand is called ___ and it is a copy of a gene. Mrna (Messenger RNA)
the mRNA exits the __ and binds to a _____. nucleus, ribosome
___ a protein-RNA complex that is the site of protein synthesis. Ribosome
ribosomes is a machine made of __ and ___. protein and rRna
a ribosome binds to the Mrna and reads each __ like it is reading a sentence, starting at the beginning of the gene and reading ____bases at a time until it gets to the end of the mRNA copy of the gene. codon, 3
each codon is read by the ____, the codon is bound by a ___ that has an amino acid hooked to it. The ___ is transferred from its tRNA to a growing chain of amino acids that clings to the ribosome. ribosome, tRNA, amino acid
replication of the chromosomes happens during a phase of a process known as the ___ cell cycle.
another phase of the cell cycle that you might recognize is ___, when the replicated chromosomes line up in the ____ of the cell and then separate to the two __ of the cell before the cell divides down the middle. mitosis, middle, poles
Replication of the chromosomes occurs during the __ phase of the cell cycle. Where each chromosome is ___, but initially the two duplicated remain attached to one another. Each duplicate in a chromosome pair is called a ____ and the pair of duplicates are called ____. synthesis, duplicated, chromatid, sister chromatids
Once the genome is completely duplicated, the the cell can enter ____. mitosis
____ the state of carrying a pair of identical alleles of a gene (YY, or yy) homozygous
if the organism has a different alleles for a gene then it is ___ for that gene. (Yy) heterozygous
the three allele pairs YY, yy, Yy are called ___ gene genotypes
cells contain _ sets of chromosomes 2
the diploid state with chromosomes(n) is the same as saying 2n (2 chromosomes)
___ cell division in eukaryotes that produces two daughter cells, each with the same chromosome number as the parent cell. mitosis
the duplicated chromosomes are organized and then separated from one another in a cell division process known as ___. mitosis
in mitosis a cells that is 2n(2 chromosomes) yields 2 new cells each being ___ 2n
___ fertilized g with full set of genetic material resulting from merging of egg and sperm nuclei. zygote
the division process that produces gametes is called ___ meiosis
___ formation requires 2 rounds of cell division, including 2 rounds of nuclear division but with only one round of __ replications. gamete, DNA
the 2n chromosome diploid that undergoes meiosis, makes for ___ gametes (sperm or eggs) haploid
The equal; distribution of alleles (genes) among the gametes is known as ____: the law of equal segregation Mendel's first law
___ a cross between parents homogeneous at one specific gene monohybrid cross
___ a cross between parents heterozygous at 2 specific genes dihybrid cross
Mendel's second law of inheritance is the law of independent assortment
Codominance within genes, some traits are shown equally for example ABO blood
__ is a type of gene interaction in which the phenotype of a trait is the result of one gene's alleles affecting the alleles of another independently inherited gene. epistasis
The 4 elements that make up the majority of living organisms are ___, ___, ___, ___. these chemical properties depend on the _____ of the elements smallest unit. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, structure
electrons are __ charged particles that move around the center of the atom in the regions known as ____. negative, orbitals
neutrons have __ charge and protons are __ charged. no, positive
__ the table of elements expressed as columns and rows periodic table
periodic table Fe= NA= fe= iron na= sodium
Period numbers are also the same as the number of ___ within each shell. Therefore, shell number 2 is the valence shell of an element in the __ period, and hat shell contains one subshell of __ orbitals. subshell, second, s
elements in period 3 should have three subshells they are s, p, and d
___ dont always have the same number of neutrons and protons. isotopes
orginally carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons but the isotope 14 carbon has __ protons and __ neutrons. 6 and 8
__ are used to identify the location of cancerous masses. tracers
___ properties of substances are observable characteristics that change without modifying the identity of the substance. physical
when hydrogen and oxygen atoms combine they form ___ water
0 kelvin= ___ C -273
heat is measured in the units of __ or ___. calories or joules
the phase of a substance depends on 2 conditions __ and ___. temperature and pressure
__ is a state of matter composed of molecules in constant random motion gas
a ____ is any arrangement of 2 or more atoms bonded together molecule
___ in a chemical equation, the substances on the left side of the equation; the starting materials in a chemical reaction reactants
___ in a chemical equation, the substances on the right side of the equation; the substances that are formed in a chemical reaction products
___ a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing permanent chemical change. catalyst
___ in our digestive system decompose (or break down) the proteins into various amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds, which are absorbed into our blood and carried to cells throughout our body. enzymes
__ molecules that increase the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, without themselves being permanently chemically altered in process. catalysts
___ a chemical compound formed from the reaction of an acid with a base, with at least part of the hydrogen of the acid replaced by a cation salt
acid+base -> ___ + ____ salt + water
as temp increases molecules ___ move faster
if temp rises then the rate of an __ reaction will increase endothermic (heat is the reactant)
when the reaction is ___ (heat is a product) the reaction will slow down or the reverse reaction will prevail exothermic
graduated cylinders are used for volumes ranging from __ to __ or ___ 10 ml, 1000,l, or 1L
graduated pipettes deliver from __ to __ and can easily dispense liquids in small increments. For high-precision work, __ are preferred. .1 to 25ml, volumetric pipettes
__ = speed of sound x time distance
__ collection of information data
data in science is __, meaning that it was collected by observation through the senses rather than being theoretical or otherwise not derived from experience. empirical
___ data is often collected without ___ meaning that it is the starting point for a scientific investigation that will eventually lead to a scientific experiment. empirical, control
__ of an experiment is a way to test the reliability of experimental data. repetition
Scientific experiments are not designed to test ___, linked trends in data that are not causative. correlations
data collection must be unbiased and the e data acquired must be accurate and only reflect the effect (or lack of effect) of the ___. independent variables
a ___ means that two features of the natural world behave in an interrelated manner correlation
___ is an educated guess that serves as a starting point for further testing. it is an informed, logical, and plausible explanation of observations made about the natural which, which serves as the basis for additional experiment. hypothesis
a ___ is a prediction. hypothesis
a scientific experiment is based on a ___ or a ____. hypothesis, question
in an experiment, typically only one ___ variable is manipulated or changed. this is called the _____. variable, independent variable
the thing that potentially is affected by manipulating an independent variable is called a ___. dependent variable
the variables that are kept the same between the control and experimental groups are called _____. control variables
___ energy used to do work mechanical
____ energy bonds in molecules store energy for later use potential
___ energy is the energy of an object in motion kinetic
___ energy is being transferred by waves in electric and magnetic fields. radiation
_____- material being measured property and dependent on amount of material is an extensive property mass
____- material being measured dependent on amount of material it is an extensive property volume
____ material being measured ratio of material in a given volume it is an intensive property density
___ material being measured dependent on amount of material it is an extensive property length
_____-use energy of the sun or chemicals to fix carbon into organic materials. The producer is seaweed producer
_____-herbivores and obtain their carbon and energy from organic materials fixed by producers. primary consumer
_____-carnivores and obtain carbon and energy from organic materials from primary consumers secondary consumer
_____-predators and obtain their carbon and energy from organic materials from secondary consumers tertiary consumer
skeletal muscle cells contain a high number of ___ because of the energy needed for movement. mitochondria
___ provides structural support and protection for the cell. cell wall
___ uses photosynthesis to produce ATP and other sugars chloroplasts
___ aids in the transferring of materials and movements of whole cells. cytoskeleton
___ processes protetins golgi apparatus
___ holds all genetic information such as DNA and conducts the building of ribosomes nucleus
___ maintains cells environment through the process of selective permeability plasma membrane
___ synthesizes and processes proteins in the cell rough endoplasmic reticulum
___ synthesizes and processes lipid in the cell smooth endoplasmic reticulum
when muscles are relaxed the myosin and actin filaments are not ___. attached.
tow monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis to form _____ disaccharides
___ is a common disaccharide. sucrose
___ can take any form they can be linear, branched, or helix shaped carbohydrates
______ is a major component in the rigid cell walls in plants. cellulose
branched carbohydrates such as glycogen and amylopectin function in ____. energy storage
___ and ___ are molecules that contain carbohydrates and other macromolecules and they function in cell recognition glycoproteins and glycolipids
___ are subdivided into four groups: fats and oils, phospholipids, and steroids. they are also insoluble in water. lipids
fat molecules consists of a ____ backbone and 3 ___ glycerol, fatty acid chains
the human body uses fats for ____ storage, ___ and ___. energy storage, cushioning, and insulation.
waxes are ____ and are used by living things to stay dry. hydrophobic
____ are two fatty acid chains attached to a phosphate molecule. phospholipids
one function of ___ is to form a semipermeable membrane around cells. phospholipids
___ help to separate aqueous compartments in living things. phospholipids
___ often function as chemical messengers steroids
enzyme activity is affected by environmental conditions such as ___ and ___. temperature and ph level.
the ____ site is where catalysis occurs. active
___ is produced and secreted by stomach cells and initiates protein digestion in the stomach. pepsin
___ are polymers made of linked nucleotides that contain hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. nucleic acids
____ have three components: a nitrogenous base, sugar, and a phosphate group. nucleotides
ribosomes (rRNA) located in the cells ____ cytoplasm
____ provides the catalytic environment necessary for peptide bonds to form. ribosomes
___ are the site of protein synthesis from amino acid monomers. ribosomes
errors in the sequence of nucleotides are referred to as ___ mutations
chromosomes consist of DNA that winds around ___ proteins. histone
organisms like ____ have a single circular chromosome, bacteria
researchers estimate that humans have about _____ genes. 25,000
____ genes are converted into short-lived RNA message (mRNA) that is decoded by the ____ and assembled into proteins that build structures in living things. structural, ribosome
_____ genes control the expression of ___ genes by turning on or off activity, either directly or through a protein intermediate. regulatory, protein coding.
offspring inherit _____ from their parents. factors
Mendel's third law is the ____ where the dominants gene always overtakes the recessive gene unless they have all recessive genes. Mendel's third law
each parent contributes __ chromosomes 23
when eggs and sperm fuse together this is called ___ fertilization
a ___ is a chart that can be used to determine the ratios of the genotypes of offspring from a reproductive corss punnett square
____ tracks the inheritance of two different trains with a parental cross of two true-bleeding or homozygous (PP and pp) and end in a heterozygous (Pp) this is also known as mendel's law of ____ dihybrid cross, independent assortment
____ relationships that lead to an intermediate ex: red and white make pink) incomplete dominance-recessive
____ relationships is where both dominances are expressed ex AB blood group both A and B proteins are dominant. co-dominance.
electrons exist in an ___ surrounding the nucleus. electron cloud
___ on the periodic table are shown in a decimal form to account for the natural abundance of isotopes. atomic mass
___ like helium and neon have full valence shells noble gases
atoms that are stable like helium and neon are also called ___ and they do not interact with other atoms because they are so stable inert gases
Gaining electrons typically happens in atoms with valences greater than __ and losing electrons typically happens in atoms with valences less than __. 4,4
___ are typically formed between 2 p-block elements (p from periodic table) covalent bonds
_____ do not depend on the amount of the substance present ex: boiling point, melting point, luster intensive physical properties
_____ can change depending on the amount of matter present ex: mass and volume extensive physical properties.
___ means it has negatively charged (oxygen end) and positively charged (hydrogen end) side. polar molecule
___ is a measure of how well similar molecules stick to each other or group together cohesion
__ molecules are cohesive because they are attracted to other water molecules. water
water boils at 100C, 212F
___ and ____ are key processes for the transport of molecules through substrates and across membranes. diffusion and osmosis
water is a ____, meaning substances ____ dissolve in it. solvent, solutes
water moves from regions where solvent concentration is ___ to areas where solvent concentration is ___ high to low
matter exists in four phases solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
above ___ (__k or ___C) molecules are in constant motion. absolute zero (0k or -273C)
increasing ___ has a tendency to move the particles of matter ___, and increasing ___ has a tendency to pack them ___. temperature, apart, pressure, close together.
___ matter has definite volume and shape. has a specific amount of matter and takes up a specific amount of space. solid
___ matter has definite volume but no definite shape, meaning that it will conform to the shape of the container. liquid
__ has no definite volume or shape. they are highly compressible and subject to changes in volume. gases
___ is a change from solid to liquid. melting
_____ is a change from liquid to gas boiling
___ is a change from gas to liquid condensation
____ is a change from liquid to solid freezing.
____ occur when two or more atoms have interaction between electrons. chemical bonds
___ tend to become positively charged cations metals
____ become negatively charges anions nonmetals
water and human blood are great examples of ___ solutions. neutral
acids mixed with bases react with each other to produce __ and ___. water and salt
the human body uses chemicals called ___ to control the ph in the body. buffers can ___ excess H+ or OH. buffers, absorb
____ maintain the proper ph of the body. buffers.
a ___ is the curve formed at the top of a liquid in response to its container. meniscus
the meniscus curve can be upward (___) concave
the meniscus curve can be downward (___) convex.
the variable being tested is called the ____ independent variable
the variable being kept the same are called the ___ controlled variables
the x-axis of a graph is the ___ variable dependent
the y axis of a graph is the ___ variable independent
variables that are kept the same in an investigation is called the ____ control variable
when scientist submit their evidence to professional journals, where the investigation and data are reviewed this is called ____ peer review.
___ metric unit of mass gram
____ the monomer of DNA and RNA nucleotide
___ a molecule found in a living thing that contains carbon organic molecule
Created by: xokitty17xo
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