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Dig. Proce. Terms

Procedural Terms used for the Digestive System

TermDefinition
absorption passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
amino acids small building block of protein
amylase enzyme secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch
anus terminal end of opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
appendix blind pouch hanging from the cecum
bile digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up large fat globules
bowel intestine
canine teeth pointed, dog
cecum first part of the large intestine
colon portion of the large intestine consisting of ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segment
defecation elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
deglutition swallowing
dentin primary material found in teeth
digestion breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
duodenum first part of the small intestine
elimination act of removal of materials from the body
enamel hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyme chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances
esophagus tube connecting the throat to the stomach
fatty acids substances produced when fats are digested
feces solid wastes, stool
gallbladder small sac under the liver, stores bile
glucose simple sugar
glycogen starch
hydrochloric acid substance produced in the stomach; necessary for digestion
ileum third part of the small intestine
incisor any one of the four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas
jejunum second part of the small intestine
lipase pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile, stores sugar, iron and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn
lower esophageal sphincter ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach
mastication chewing
molar teeth the back teeth used for grinding foods
palate roof of the mouth
pancreas organ behind the stomach; produces insulin
papillae small projections on the tongue
parotid gland salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
pharynx throat
protease enzyme that digests protein
pulp soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter ring of muscles at the end of the stomach
rectum last section of the large intestine
rugae ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon fourth and last S
sphincter circular ring of muscles that constrict a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
triglycerides fat molecules
villi microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
Created by: Harold12