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Reticular formation

Reticular formation, limbic, hypothalamus, hippocampus, basal ganglia

What is the reticular formation? Collection of nuclei running vertically throughout the brainstem in three columns
What is the function of the reticular formation? Control of skeletal muscle, pain modulation, control of autonomic and endocrine system, circadian rhythms, and consciousness
What structure receive influence from the reticular formation for motor responses? Red nucleus, substantia nigra, subthalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum
For sensory, what tract sends in info to the reticular formation? Spinal: spinoreticular, cranial: bulboreticular
What tract does the reticular formation send info to influence ANS? Reticulobulbar or reticularspinal
What is the reticular activating system? Network of neurons that project to cortex that uses external stimuli to alert people to bring them to consciousness
How does the reticular formation incorporate a stimulus for consciousness? Stimulus (alarm clock, bright light, etc.) carried to RF by appropriate nerves and feed into RAS
What is an example of RAS? Ammonia smelling salts stimulate CN V sensory fibers in nose and can be used to rouse an unconscious patient
What is the implication of RAS if it deals with consciousness? General anesthetics work to suppress this system
What is the limbic system in charge of? Emotion, mood, behavior, and memory
What are the main components depicted in the following figure? Amygdaloid body, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, fornix, limbic cortex
What does the amygdaloid body control? Behavior, mood, emotion
What does the olfactory bulb do? Sends info to the amygdaloid body
What does the hippocampus do? Involved in learning new information and in recent memory
What does the fornix do? Contains output fibers of the hippocampus
What does the limbic cortex do? Involved in behavioral control, learning, and brief storage of memories
What are mammillary bodies? Part of hippocampus, travels through mammillothalamic tract to anterior nucleus of thalamus to function with hippocampus in memory
What does the amygdala send info to? Facial nerve, hippocampus, hypothalamus, limbic cortex, thalamus, reticular formation, temporal/parietal/occipital lobe
What structure is involved in short term memory becoming long term? Amygdala
How does a short term memory become long term? Process of consolidation must occur through rehearsal and meaningful association which involves changes in the neurons
What would higher the increase in amygdalar activity? Stronger emotional component of info. Activity correlates with retention and retrieval of the memory
What emotions are attributed to the amygdala? Anger or rage
What structure in the brain controls anger produced in amygdala? Prefrontal cortex, which applies judgment and awareness of underlying issues to the emotions
How does the stimulation of the hypothalamus and amygdala compare? Stimulation can cause same effects in both strucgures
What can destruction of the amygdala result in? Decreased aggression, impaired emotional recognition and emotional learning, increased weight gain, increased sex drive, anxiety, and depression
How can destruction of the amygdala result in decreased aggression? Anger feelings produced in amygdala, so without amygdala, there would be no anger
Why is there impaired emotional recognition and learning when the amygdala is destroyed? Amygdala is involved in emotional learning so lesion would prevent attachment of emotional meaning to sensory stimuli
What is an example of impaired emotional recognition/learning? Theory in autism for social deficits is damaged amygdala - why they don't connect faces with comfort, food, or water → don't form social bonds necessary for normal developments
How does a lesion in the amygdala induce anxiety? Part of amygdala contains GABAergic neurons with a high density of GABA receptors
How does a lesion in the amygdala induce depression? Many projections from reticular system to amygdala release serotonin in amygdala - imbalance of NT release in amygdala (decreased serotonin) can lead to depression
What kind of functions does the hypothalamus have Vegetative, endocrine, and behavioral functions
What is the relationship between functions of the hypothalamus and hypothalamic area? Functions of the hypothalamus are dependent on which hypothalamic area is active
How is hunger regulated in the hypothalamus? Medial - satiety center. Lateral - initiation of eating
For hunger, what would happen if there was a lesion in the ventromedial hypothalaimc nuclei? Voracious appetite - can't stop eating
For hunger, what would happen if there was a lesion in the lateral hypothalaimc nuclei? Loss of appetite → weight loss
What emotions are associated with the hypothalamus? Fear and rage
What areas of the hypothalamus promote tranquility and rage? Medial - tranquility, lateral - rage
Where is the hippocampus? Temporal lobe
What is the function of the hippocampus? Memory and learning
What is the main pathway associated with memory and learning Hippocampus → fornix → mammarillary bodies → anterior nucleus of thalamus → limbic cortex → hippocampus
Mammillary bodies are relay centers for olfactory info, what is the implication of this? Memories are closely associated with smell - considered a survival function → reminds us how bad food smells
What kind of memories are formed with the hippocampus? Formation of new memories - not recalling distant memories
What would happen if hippocampus were to be removed? Can't remember anything after removal of hippocampus. Can watch same movie over and over again and feel like new.
What is another disorder related to the pathway associated with memory and learning? Korsakoff's syndrome
What is Korsakoff's syndrome? Memory disorder caused by deficiency of vitamin B1, commonly from alcoholism
What is the implication of deficiency of B1? Affects cells with highest metabolic need → shrinkage of anterior thalamic nucleus and mammillary bodies
What are the symptoms of Korsakoff's syndrome? Anterograde amnesia, confabulation
What is anterograde amnesia? Difficulty in processing memory of events occuring after a traumatic incidence
What is retrograde amnesia? Difficulty remembering events that occured before a brain disruption
What is confabulation? Plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what is remembered
The hippocampus is also active in spatial memory and navigation, what is the implication of this? London taxi drivers who must remember a large number of place,s routes, etc → larger hippocampus than general public
Where is the basal ganglia located? They are masses of grey matter lateral and caudal to the thalamus
What are the structures that make up the basal ganglia? Caudate nucleus, putamen, globus claustrium
What is the neostriatum? Caudate nucleus + putament
What is the lentiform nucleus? Putamen + globus palidus
What is the corpus striatum? Caudate nucleus + putament + globus pallidus
What are the parts of the globus pallidus? Globus pallidus internal (medial), globus pallidus external (lateral)
What structures work closely with the corpus striatum and are considered to be part of the basal ganglia? Subthalamus and substantia nigra
What is the function of the claustrium? No known function
What makes up the caudate nucleus? C shaped → anterior head, body that makes spine of C, posterior tail
Where is the caudate nucleus? Above thalamus
What structures does the internal capsule separate? Caudate and lentiform nuclei
What is at the tip of the tail of the caudate nucleus? Amygdaloid nucleus
What two parts make up the substantia nigra? Pars compacta - contain dopamine and more neurons, Pars reticulara - contain GABA, less neurons and project to superior colliculi and parts of the thalamus
What is the importance of the internal capsule? Anything that has to go to and from the cortex passes through there
What happens if there's a tumor in that area? Squeezes fibers passing through which starts to affect face but then paralysis of limbs from all fibers being pressed.
Why can nothing be done if theres a tumor in that area? Too deep
What is predominantly involved in regulation of motor control? Corpus striatum
What are the two main functions of the basal ganglia? Helps cortex execute learned patterns of movement and plans sequential movements
What kind of movements would be considered a learned pattern? Writing, throwing a ball
What would be an example of planning of sequential movements? See lion - turn around - run - climb tree
What kind of movement would you see if there is a problem with the basal ganglia? Resting tremor, jerking movements
Why would there be unconscious proprioception? Problem with cerebellum - conscious would be if it reached cortex
Why would there be a problem with conscious proprioception? Inferior cerebellar peduncle damage
What are the two prominent pathways from input to output nuclei through basal ganglia? Direct and indirect
How does information flow for the direct pathway? Travels from neostriatum directly to internal segment of the globus pallidus or substantia nigra pars reticulata
How does information flow for the indirect pathway? Takes detour from striatum, first to external segment of globus pallidus and then to subthalamic nucleus before reaching internal segment of globus palliidus or substantia pars reticulata
What is the output of the basal ganglia? Towards frontal lobe, particularly pre-motor and supplementary motor cortex
What is the function of the direct and indirect pathway? Direct - facilitates cortical output, indirect - inhibits thalamus, aggravating cortical output
What NT are used for excitatory and inhibitory actions of the pathway? Excitatory - glutamate, inhibitory - GABA
If lower motor neurons receive input from upper motor neuron, how is it connected to basal ganglia? Message from basal ganglia will go out of GPi then goes to thalamus then goes to cortex (upper motor neurons) which send to lower motor neurons
What are the three main conditions with dysfunction of the basal ganglia? Parkinson's, huntington's, hemiballismus
What is the pathology behind Parkinson's? Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within substantia nigra pras compacta
What are the symptoms of Parkinson's? Rigidity, resting tremor, akinesia, bradykinesia, hypokinesia, unblinking stare, losing autonomic movements of face and eyes, mask-like expression, dementia, loss of postural reflexes, affected gait
What is akinesia? Difficulty initiating movements which can progress into speech difficulties
What is bradykinesia? Gradual loss of spontaneous movement and slow voluntary
What is intentional tremor a sign of? Cerebellar damage
What does it mean loss of postural reflexes? Forward bending of the head and trunk - flexion of elbows, hips, and knees
How does Parkinson's affect gait? Akinesia makes it difficult for patient to begin walking and once they start, stopping is difficult
What does a combo of bradykinesia and hypokinesia gait look like? walking steps short and shuffling, with hands in front of the body
What is the hypothesis behind Parkinson's Inhibition of GPe within indirect pathway → disinhibition of STN →increased basal ganglia output nuclei (GPi/SNr) →excessive thalamic inhibition . Reinforced by reduced inhibitory input to Gpi/SNr through direct pathway
What is the result of the hypothetical mechanism that causes Parkinson's? Increased inhibition of thalamus and decreased excitatory inputs to cortex
What is chorea? Involuntary, dance-like movements of the limbs
What is the pathology behind Huntington's? Hereditory disorder in which cell bodies of GABA-secreting neurons projecting to the Gpe in the caudate nucleus and putamen are lost - cells of caudate nucleus and putamen degenerate and these nuclei atrophy
What are the symptoms of Huntington's? Involuntary, hyperkinetic movements; dementia develops
What is the hypothesis behind Huntington's Reduced GABA from neostriatum to Gpe leads to increased inhibitory outflow from Gpe to STN and less excitatory to Gpi/Snr and less inhibitory to thalamus and more excitatory to cortex. Increased Glu to cortical areas → hyperkinetic movements
What is hemiballismus? Hyperkinetic disorder common caused by a stroke of the subthalamic nucleus
What are symptoms of hemiballismus? Involuntary ballistic movements of the arm and leg on opposite side of the body from lesion
What is the hypothesis behind hemiballismus? Reduced Glu from STN to GPi leads to reduced inhibitory outflow from Gpi/Snr to thalamus and increased excitation ofmotor cortex. Increased Glu to cortical areas → hyperkinetic movements
Created by: nnguyen44
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