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Spinal reflexes

What is a reflex? Fast, involuntary, unplanned sequence of action that occurs in response to a particular stimulus and helps to maintain homeostasis
What serves as the integrating center for spinal reflexes and where does it occur? Spinal cord, grey matter
Are reflexes cranial or spinal? Can be either
What makes up a reflex arc? Specific neuronal circuit that includes at least synapse
What is the purpose of a reflex arc? Helps maintain homeostasis by permitting the body to make exceedingly rapid adjustments to homeostatic imbalances
What are the components of a reflex arc? Receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, and effector
What kind of innervation do reflexes exhibit? Reciprocal innervation which is contraction of one muscle and relaxation of its antagonistic muscle(s)
What is a stretch reflex? Feedback mechanism to control muscle length by causing muscle contraction
What is the purpose of a stretch reflex? Prevents injury from overstretching by contracting
How many synapses are activated and which side does the stretch reflex occur? Monosynaptic, ipsilateral
What detects the stretching of muscles? Motor spindles
What sets muscle spindle sensitivity and muscle tone? Brain
What is muscle tone? Degree of muscle contraction at rest
How is a stretch reflex stimulated? Muscle spindles signals stretch of muscle which excites the sensory neuron which sends the info to the integrating center (grey matter of spinal cord) which then activates a motor neuron to cause contracture
What are some examples of a stretch reflex? Patellar, achilles, semitendinosus, biceps, brachioradialis, triceps
What kind of innervation does a stretch reflex have? Reciprocal - Polysynaptic-interneuron → antagonistic muscles relax as part of reflex
What is a tendon reflex? Feedback mechanism to control muscle tension by causing muscle relaxation when muscle force becomes too extreme
What will a tendon reflex do to activation of original stimulus? Reverses it
What is an example of a tendon reflex? Making you drop a heavy weight because it is too much
How many synapses are activated and which side does the tendon reflex occur? Polysynaptic, ipsilateral
Which structures are being protected in a tendon reflex? Tendon and muscle
What structure detects muscle tension? Golgi tendon organs in tendons
How are golgi tendon organs activated? Stretching of tendon
What happens after a golgi tendon organ is activated? Inhibitory neuron is stimulated (polysnaptic) and motor neuron is hyperpolarized →muscle relaxes
What kind of innervation does a tendon reflex have? Reciprocal - polysnaptic - causes contraction of ipsilateral muscle group
What is a flexor (withdrawal) reflex? Ipsilateral and protective withdrawal reflex that moves a limb to avoid pain
What is the result of a flexor reflex? Contraction of flexor muscles to move a limb to avoid injury or pain
What is the sensory receptor for a flexor reflex? Dendrites of pain-sensitive neurons
Why is a flexor reflex considered and intersegmental reflex arc? Because in the integrating center of spinal cord (grey matter) sensory neuron activates interneurons in several spinal segments
What is the implication of being an intersegmental reflex arc? More than one muscle groups are activated → triggers crossed extensor reflex
What is a crossed extensor reflex? Contralateral reflex that helps to maintain balance during flexor reflex
What activates a crossed extensor reflex? Pain stimuli that triggered flexor (withdrawal) reflex
How does info from another reflex activate a crossed extensor reflex? Pain signals cross to opposite spinal cord which activates several interneurons that stimulate contralateral extensor muscles
What does the babinski reflex test for? Dysfunction of corticospinal tract - UML
What is a positive Babinski's test When test concludes that there is UMN, dysfunction of corticospinal tract - upward extensor movement
What is a negative Babinski's test? Flexor (downward) movement of foot
Babies will test positive for a Babinski's test, is this normal? Yes, only in adults is it abnormal
What does an achilles reflex test for? Checks if S1 and S2 nerve roots are intact - could be indicative of sciatic nerve pathology or peripheral neuropathy
Besides sciatic nerve pathology, when would a reduced achilles reflex occur? Herniation at L5-S1
What are the 3 columns that make up white matter in the spinal column? Posterior, lateral, anterior
Where is the posterior column? Between midline and dorsal horn of spinal cord
What kind of nerves are in the posterior column? Purely sensory
What are the two tracts within the posterior column? Gracile fasciculus, Cuneate fasciculus
Where is the lateral column? Between dorsal and ventral horns
What kind of nerves are in the lateral column? Sensory and motor
What tracts are in the lateral column? Corticospinal, rubrospinal, reticulospinal, vestibulospinal
Where is the anterior column located? Between midline and ventral horn of spinal cord
What kind of nerves are in the anterior column? Both sensory and motor
What tracts are in the anterior column Tectospinal tract
For inhibition of pain, where would the pathway travel down to? Spinal cord, in grey matter, in substantia gelatinosa
Created by: nnguyen44
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