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Intro and cortex

Intro to Neuro and Cerebral Cortex

What is the CNS? Part of nervous system which is inside the bony cavities - brain and spinal cord are in the skull and vertebral column
What is the PNS? Part of nervous system which is outside of bony cavities - spinal and cranial nerves, and plexus, ganglions
What does somatic mean? Innervates skin and skeletal muscles and is mainly involved with receiving and responding to info from the external environment
What is visceral? Innervates organ systems in the body and other visceral elements, such as smooth muscles and glands in peripheral regions of the body - concerned with detecting and responding to info from internal environment
What are afferent nerve fibers? Afferent nerve fibers transmit signal from periphery to the CNS
What are efferent nerve fibers? Efferent nerve fibers transmit messages from the CNS to the periphery
Brain can be divided into what? Cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum
In embryology, what are the primary brain vesicles? Prosecephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
In embryology, what are the secondary brain vesicles? Telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon
What secondary brain vesicles are derived from the prosencephalon? Telencephalon, diencephalon
What secondary brain vesicles are derived from the mesencephalon? Mesencephalon
What secondary brain vesicles are derived from the rhombencephalon? Metencephalon, myelencephalon
What are the adult structure walls? Cerebral hemispheres; thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus; midbrain; pons; cerebellum; medulla
What primary and secondary vesicles are the cerebral hemispheres derived from? Prosencephalon, telencephalon
What primary and secondary vesicles are the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus derived from? Prosencephalon, diencephalon
What primary and secondary vesicles is the midbrain derived from? Mesencephalon, mesencephalon
What primary and secondary vesicles is the pons derived from? Rhombencephalon, metencephalon
What primary and secondary vesicles is the cerebellum derived from? Rhombencephalon, metencephalon
What primary and secondary vesicles is the medulla derived from? Rhombencephalon, myelencephalon
What structures are derived from the same primary and secondary vesicles? Pons, cerebellum
What primary vesicle is the brainstem derived from? Mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
What embryonic structure is the brain formed from? Neural tube and cavities inside form brain ventricles
What is fasciculus? Bundle of nerve fibers within CNS
What are fascicles? Bundle of nerve fibers within PNS
What is a tract? Bundle of nerve fibers within CNS that are usually doing the same function
What is white matter? Myelinated nerve fibers
What is grey matter? NErve cell bodies, bundles of unmyelinated axons and dendrites, and neuroglia
What is a nucleus? Mass of nerve cell bodies inside the CNS
What is a ganglion? Mass of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
What is the cerebral cortex? Highly convoluted structure consisting of right and left hemispheres made up of grey matter
What are the four external lobes of each hemisphere and their primary function? o Frontal – motor o Parietal – sensory o Occipital - vision o Temporal – sound
What is a gyrus? Each convolution on each lobe is called a gyrus
What are the three prominent sulci? Central sulcus (fissure of Rolando), lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure), Parieto-occipital sulcus
What does the central sulcus separate? • Separates frontal and parietal lobes • Behind central sulcus – post-central gyrus – primary sensory area • Anterior to central sulcus – precentral gyrus – primary motor area
What does the lateral sulcus separate? • Superior boundary of temporal lobe • Seaparates frontal and a part of the parietal lobe from temporal lobe
What does the parieto-occipital lobe separate? Separates parietal and occipital
What are the two lobes that aren't visible externally? Insula and limbic
Where is the Insula and its primary function? • Deep to lateral fissure • Primary gustatory cortex • Seen if temporal separated from parietal lobe
Where is the limbic and its primary function? • Inferior medial surfaces of frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe • Memory and emotional expression
What is the function Broca's area and where is it located? • Initiation and execution of speech • Frontal lobe – mainly left hemisphere
What does damage to Broca's area indicate? Damage to this area means patient can understand language but can’t speak - Expressive/motor/Broca's aphasia. Patient will often get frustrated because can't express words
What is the function Wernicke's area and where is it located? • Parietal lobe – mainly left hemisphere • Running around lateral sulcus – superior posterior end • Language comprehension (written and spoken)
What would damage to Wernicke's area indicate? Patient can speak but can’t actually comprehend language →person speaks jumbled, meaningless words - Receptive/sensory/Wernicke's aphasia
What is the function Somatosensory area and where is it located? • Receives general sensory input • Parietal lobe – postcentral gyrus
What would damage to the somatosensory area mean? Patient can't feel if something general senses - pain, temperature, pressure, touch, vibration, itch, tickle
What is the function Somatosensory association area and where is it located? • Posterior to somatosensory area • Elaborates on sensory signals • Determines exact shape, texture of an object without looking at it • Storage of memories of past sensory experiences • Gives more meaning to sense in the somatosensory area
What would damage to the somatosensory association area mean? Asterognosia - unable to recognize object by touch. Amorphosynthesis - oblivious to opposite side of body and to opposite side of objects - visual cortex is fine, just associated with general sense
What connects Broca's and Wernicke's area? Arcuate fasciculus
What would happen if there was a lesion on the tract? Conduction aphasia- can comprehend and articulate but difficulty repeating heard speech
Where is the primary visual cortex? Occipital
Where is the primary auditory cortex? Temporal
Where is the primary gustatory cortex? Insula
Where is the primary olfactory cortex? Medial temporal lobe
What is the significance of the primary olfactory's location? Closely related to behavior because of where it is located
Describe the relationship between the primary areas and the association areas Primary receives initial sensory, input but does not interpret. Association interprets sensory info.
Which area of the body has the largest area outlined in the sensory homunculus? Lips and hands
What does the size on the sensory homunculus tell us? The bigger the size, the more dense the sensory receptors in the body → more receptors in that area
If the primary sensory area can determine topographical location, why can excision of the area still have some localization? Because crude localization still happens due to thalamus
What does it mean for an area to be unimodal? Area integrates information from one area of the brain →Primary somatosensory sends info to somatosensory association area - elaborates on primary stimulus
What is the implication of areas being unimodular? For each primary sense, close by or next to primary sensory area
What does it mean for an area to be multimodular? Integrates information from different sensory areas
What areas are multimodular? Only one → parieto-occipito-temporal association area
What is the function of the parieto-occipito-temporal association area? Combining hearing, vision, and other senses like seeing that your finger is hot because it is touching the stove, used stimuli integrated with pain information
How does information for senses from in the brain? From primary to association
What is the implication of sensory info flowing from primary area to association? If damage on primary area, then will lose that primary sense. If damage on association area then will lose "meaning" to that sense.
What is the prefrontal association area? Area involved in memory of sequences of events and in short-term/working memory - can store info as a guide for future movement. It is concerned with personality - involved with judgment and weighing consequences
What would damage to the prefrontal association area mean? Change in personality, inability to create and stick to future plans, inability to differentiate between intellectual faculty and animal propensity
What is the primary motor area? • Precentral gyrus - frontal lobe • Involved in conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements
Where does the primary motor area receive input from? Premotor area and supplementary motor areas, sensory cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum
What is the relationship between the size of the areas outlined by the motor homunculus to the body? Size of homunculus is proportional to the degree of fine motor control → hand is big because need more fine motor control
From right to left, how are the body parts arranged in the motor homunculus? Jaw, tongue, swallowing → lips → face→ fingers→ hands→ forearm→ arm→ hips→ knees→ feet
What is the implication for how the body parts are arranged in the motor hounculus? Blood supply: MCA supplies to lateral side - areas association with face. ACA supplies to medial side - areas association to leg
What is the premotor area? • Frontal lobe - anterior to primary motor area • Controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills • Stores learned motor responses that can be used to program activity of primary motor area
Where does the premotor area receive input from? Sensory cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia
What does the premotor area allow us to do if it controls learned, repetitious motor skills? Prepares muscles for exact movements that it will make - allows us to make choices about these movements using information by senses
What is an example of an action using the premotor area? Squeeze toothpaste onto toothbrush and not lotion
What is the supplementary motor area? Similar to premotor area - helps plan and coordinate the movements executed by primary motor area - also active durning mental rehearsal
What is the left hemisphere usually most active in? Speech, analytical processing, mathematics
What is the right hemisphere usually most active in? Spatial concepts, creativity
What are association fibers? Join different area of same hemisphere to each other
What are commissural fibers? Reciprocally connect areas of cortex in one hemisphere with corresponding areas of the opposite hemisphere → "interneurons"
What is an example of commissural fibers? corpus callosum, anterior and posterior commissures
What are projectional fibers? Projecting to and from cortex
What is an example of a projectional fiber? Internal capsule
Where is the internal capsule located? Between caudate nucleus and putamens anteriorly, thalamus and globus pallidus inferiorly
What is the basal ganglia? Large nuclei primarily involved in regulation of motor control
What are the main components of the basal ganglia? Caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putaments. Substantia nigra and subthalamus nucleus work with basal ganglia
What makes up the diencephalon? Thalamic structures - thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus, pituitary gland
Where is the pituitary gland? Hanging from hypothalamus
What is the function of the thalamus? relay center for sensory information (except smell) o All other senses have to pass through thalamus o Involved in movement planning and control
Where is the hypothalamus located? Caudal and medial to thalamus
What is the function of the hypothalamus? o Center of autonomic nervous system – regulates many body function • E.g. core temperature, endocrine function, regulates eating/drinking behavior • Maintains waking state • Establishes pattern of sleep • Produces hormones oxytocin and ADH
What is the function of the epithalamus? Regulates circadian rhythm, distribution of pigment melanin in skin
Where is the pineal gland? With the epithalamus
Where is the substhalamus? caudal and lateral to thalamus
What is the function of the subthalamus? o Works with basal ganglia in motor function o Also in contact with cerebellum
Where is the cerebellum? Posterior to brainstem
What is the function of the cerebellum? • Coordination of unconscious movement • Balance and equilibrium and posture • Compares intended movement with what is actually happening to smooth muscle • Coordinates complex, skilled movements
What is the cerebellum to the brainstem connected by? o Superior peduncles – midbrain o Middle peduncle – pons o Inferior peduncles – medulla
What makes up the brainstem? Midbrain, pons, medulla
What are important structures in the brainstem? Substantia nigra, red nucleus, medial/spinal lemniscus, and corticospinal tract
What does the substantia nigra do? Works with basal ganglia in motor function
What does the red nucleus do? Concerned with motor function
What is the function of the medial lemniscus? Sends sensory info to cortex - proprioception, discriminative touch
What is the function of the spinal lemniscus? Sends sensory info to cortex - pain, temperature, crude touch
What is the function of the corticospinal tract? Motor info from brain to spinal cord
What is the crus cerebri? Corticospinal tract and corticobilbar tract - both descending tracts (motor)
Where is the midbrain? Between diencephalon and pons
What cavity is in the midbrain? Aqueduct that connects 3rd ventricle to 4th ventricle
What is the tectum on the midbrain? Region posterior to aqueduct → roof of midbrain
What is seen on the tectum? Has bumps known as colliculi → collectively known as corpora quadrigemina of tectum →Superior and inferior colliculi
What is the function of the superior colliculi? VIsual reflex
What is the function of the inferior colliculi? Auditory reflex
What CN are carried on the midbrain? CN III and IV
Where is the pons? Between midbrain and medulla
What is the function of pons? Relay center for motor pathway, respiration, generation of REM sleep
What is the implication of being a relay center for motor pathway? Located between cerebellum and cerebrum for voluntary movement
What CN are carried on the pons? CN V, VI, VII, VIII
Where is CN V located on the pons? Anterolateral surface?
Where are CN VI, VII, VIII located on the pons? Ponto-medullary sulcus
Where is the medulla? Where connects brainstem to spinal cord - separated by pons by ponto-medullar sulcus
What is located on the anterior view of the medulla? Two bulges on its ventral surface → pyramids; two other bulges next to pyramids → olives
What is the significance of the pyramids? Carries corticospinal fibers
What is the significance of the olives? Inferior olivary nuclei – relay center for proprioceptive info to cerebellum
What CN are on the medulla? Anterolateral surface carries CN IX, X, XI, XII
What is the function of the medulla? Many reflexes: respiratory, heart rate, cough, swallowing
What is the reticular formation? Complex network of nuclei and nerve fibers that runs through parts of the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord
What is the function of the reticular formation? o Consciousness o Selective monitoring of sensory info o Control of skeletal muscle and endocrine systems
What can a stroke in the reticular formation cause? Coma
What does the white matter in the spinal cord consist of? Tracts of fibers - ventral, lateral, and dorsal fasciuli
What does the grey matter in the spinal cord consist of? Nerve cell bodies and synapses: 2 ventral hornes (motor), 2 dorsal horns (sensory), and lateral horns
Are lateral horns seen all along the spinal cord? No, T1-L2, S2/3/4
What is the implication of the lateral horns location? Part of ANS - sympathetic (T1-L2) and parasympathetic (S2/3/4)
What connects the right and left halves of the spinal cord? Grey commissure which contains central canal
Where is the spinal cord derived from? Caudal part of neural tube
Where is the spinal cord located? Sitting in vertebral canal and ends in L1/L2 in adults, L3 in children
What is the cornus medullaris? Tapered part of spinal cord – terminal end of spinal cord
Because it is the terminal end of the spinal cord, where in the vertebral canal is the cornus medullaris? At level of L1/L2
What would happen if L1/L2 was fractured? A lot of nerves would be compromised
If the spinal cord ends at L1/L2, what does the rest of the vertebral column have? Contains spinal roots which hang down like a ponytail
What are the spinal roots hanging from L1/L2 called? Cauda equina
What is a spinal segment? Area of the spinal cord that gives rise to a single pair of spinal nerves
How many spinal segments are there? 31 for 31 spinal nerves
How are nerves attached to spinal cord? Made by two roots
Describe how the dorsal root is attached to the spinal cord Emerge from dorsal median sulcus as rootlets then merge to form roots which attach to dorsal horn
Describe how the dorsal root is attached to the spinal cord Emerge from ventral median fissure as rootlets then merge to form roots which attach to ventral horn horn
What is the implication of dorsal and ventral roots? Spinal nerve is mixed - made up of both sensory and motor
How do the spinal nerves leave the vertebral canal? Through intervertebral foramina and divide into anterior and posterior
Describe the anterior branch of the spinal nerves Ventral ramus which contains mix of sensory and motor. Innervates everything dorsal does. Doesn't innervate certain regions of the head
Describe the posterior branch of spinal nerves Dorsal ramus which moves posteriorly and innervates deep back muscles and skin on back (one inch away from midline)
What are plexus? Network of fibers
What makes up the cervical plexus C1-C4
What makes up the brachial plexus? C5-T1
What makes up the lumbar plexus? L1-L4
What makes up the sacral plexus? L4-S4
What makes up the sacro-coccygeal plexus? S5-Co
Why don't the nerves at T1-T12 have a plexus? Because of ribs
What are intercostal nerves? T1-T11
What is the subcostal nerve? T12
What are the meninges? Membranous structure that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
What layers make up the meninges? Dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
What is the dura mater? Dense CT attached to inner surface of neurocranium separate from walls of vertebral canal by epidural space
What is the function of dura mater? Protect CNS
What is epidural space? Above dura mater. In neurocranium, not real but potential space. In vertebrae, in the walls of vertebral canal - highly vascularized CT that forms protective layer around spinal cord.
What would cause an epidural space to occur in the neurocranium? Blood vessel ruptures and a hematoma forms
How far does the dura mater go? Ends at S2
What layers make up the dura mater? Periosteal layer, meningeal layer
What is the periosteal layer? • Outermost layer that adheres to cranial bones • Does not extend into spinal cord
What is the meningeal layer? Inner layer with two distinct structures: dural reflections and dural sinuses
What are dural reflections? Certain places forms a septum that partitions parts of the brain
What are examples of dural reflections? Falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, tentorium cerebelli
What is falx cerebri? Partition within longitudinal fissure of cerebrum which separates cerebral hemispheres
What is falx cerebelli? Partition which separates cerebellar hemispheres
What is tentorium cerebelli? Partition between cerebellum and occipital lobe
What is the significance of the tenotrium cerebelli? Passage for midbrain and separates cerebrum and cerebellum
What are dural sinuses? Venous channels where periosteal layer and meningeal layer separated - drains venous blood into circulatory system
What are veins that drain the brain area into the dural sinuses? Diploic (drains skull bones), meningeal, cerebellar, cerebral, and brainstem veins
What vein is on top of the falx cerebri? Superior sagittal sinus
What is the arachnoid mater? Middle layer of meninges
What is the subarachnoid space? Space between arachnoid membrane and pia mater - attached to pia by weblike arachnoid trabeculae
What does the subarachnoid contain? Arteries, veins, and roots of cranial nerves; CSF and blood vessels that can be reabsorbed into venous sinus
What structure is responsible for reabsorbing CSF and blood into venous sinus? Arachnoid villi (granulation)
What is pia mater? Innermost layer of meninges - attaches surface to spinal cord, closely following contour of brain and spinal cord
What is the function of pia mater? Lines blood vessels that supply brain and spinal cord →takes blood vessels into CNS
How far does pia mater go? Ends at S2
What is the caudal equina? Dural sac that closes off at S2 - pia mater
How does the pia and dura mater extend to coccyx? Filum terminal - extension of the two
What is denticulate ligament? Extension of pia mater on both sides of the spinal cord
What is the function of denticulate ligament? Spinal cord not freely hanging - has pia mater on sides and downward to anchor it
What surrounds the spinal nerves in the sacrum? Extension of dura
What is epidural anesthesia? Can insert anesthesia through epidural space and through diffusion, pass through dura and can block off spinal roots
What is the ventricular system? System that circulates CSF and helps buoy the brain and cushion
What is the importance of the ventricular system? Helps to protect and nourish the CNS
What is the flow of CSF? From ventricles into central canal of spinal cord and the subarachnoid space
What makes up the ventricular system? Lateral ventricles with anterior, posterior, and inferior horns; third ventricle; fourth ventricle
What secretes CSF? Choroid plexus - found in all ventricles - made by capillaries and ependymal cells that line cavities from inside
How does the lateral ventricles connect to the third ventricles? Interventricular foramen
What connects the third ventricle to the fourth? Cerebral aqueduct
What connects the fourth ventricle to the ventral canal? Already connected - closed system
How does CSF get out of the 4th ventricle? Through openings on root of 4th ventricle - medial aperture (foramen of Magendie) and 2 lateral apertures (foramen of Luschka)
Where does CSF from the 4th ventricle travel to? Subarachnoid space which will drain out of arachnoid villa into venous blood to begin circulation again
What would happen if a ventricle was blocked? Hydrocephalus
How can a blocked ventricle be circumvented? Open a shunt and put it in the dural sinus and pass into skin and goes into abdomen to be absorbed into venous system
What are the two systems that supply blood to the brain? Vertebro-basilar system and carotid system
What arteries make up the carotid system? Mddle cerebral, anterior cerebral, and anterior communicating
What arteries make up the vertebral-basilar system? Vertebral arteries, basilar, posterior cerebral, posterior communicating, posterior anterior inferior cerebellar artery, superior cerebellar
What arteries cover the brainstem? Posterior anterior inferior cerebellar, superior cerebellar
What arteries turns into vertebral artery? Branches of subclavian artery (in root of neck)→come to skull by transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae
What does the vertebral vein turn into? Basilar - anterior to pons and supplies pons
What does the basilar artery turn into? Posterior cerebral artery (PCA)
What is the significance of PCA? In medial occipital lobe so cortical blindness if compromised
What artery branches from PCA? Superior cerebellar artery
How does the vertebro-basilar system connect with the carotid system? PCA connects to carotid system through posterior communicating arteries to middle cerebral
What is the internal artery? Branch of common carotid which gives out middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery
What happens if there is a blockage on one side of circle of willis? Other side compensates
What happens if MCA is compromised? Being on lateral side which supplies the tongue, mouth, face - can't talk
What happens if the ACA is compromised? Located on medial surface so for leg, foot and hips - those areas might be compromised
What happens if PCA is compromised Being on medial surface of occipital lobe - eyesight will be compromised
What are the layers of the cerebral cortex from surface to deep? Layer 1 (molecular) → Layer 2 (external granular layer) → Layer 3 (external pyramidal layer) → Layer 4 (Internal granular layer) → Layer 5 (itnternal pyramidal layer) → Layer 6 (multiform layer)
What are the intra-cortical connections? Layers 1-3
What is the function of layers 1-3? Route info around cortical layers → intra-cortical connections
What is the function of layer 4? Major thalamic termination center for sensory impulses - accepts sensory info from thalamus and sends to layer 1-3
What areas in the cortex is layer 4 most developed and least? Well developed in sensory cortex, small in motor
What is the function of layers 5-6? Subcortical outputs → sends outputs to other areas of the brain
Which subcortical output layer travels longer distances? Layer 5 can go longer distances, layer 6 only goes to thalamic regions
What is the relationship between size and function? They vary depending on function → Layers 5-6 are bigger because they're motor
Created by: nnguyen44
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