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AP Euro History Ch18

1. Enlightened absolutism An absolute monarchy in which the ruler follows the principals of the enlightenment by introducing reforms for the improvement of society, allowing freedom of speech and the press, permitting religious toleration, expanding education.
2. Louis XV lazy and weak, ministers and mistresses soon begun to influence the king, control the affairs of the state, and undermine the prestige of the monarchy.
3. Cardinal Fleury the kings minister
4. Madame de Pompadour an intelligent and beautiful women, charmed Louis XV and gained both wealth and power, often making important government decisions and giving advice on appointments and foreign policy
5. Louis XVI knew little about the operations of the french government and lacked the energy to deal decisively with state affairs
6. Marie Antoinette Louis XVI's wife, a spoiled austrian princess who devoted much of her time to court intrigues
7. the United Kingdom came into existence in 1707 when the governments of England and scotland were united
8. "pocket boroughs" (in his pocket) controlled by a single person
9. the Hanoverians/the Georges since the first Hanoverian king couldn't speak english and neither George had much familiarity with the British system, the chief ministers were allowed to handle Parliament and dispense patronage
10. Robert Walpole Both George I and II relied on Robert Walpole as their chief or prime minister
11. "Wilkes and Liberty" criticized the kings ministers was arrested and released, expelled from his seat in parliament. Preserved and won another parliamentary seat from the court of Middlesex, and again denied the right to take his place in Parliament
12. William Pitt the Elder with his successes, serious reform of the corrupt parliamentary system was avoided for another generation
13. Patriots v. the Orangists the patriots were crushed and both orangist and regents reestablished the old system
14. Fredrick William I promoted the evolution of Prussia's high efficient civil bureaucracy by establishing the general directory
15. Junkers the nobility or landed aristocracy.
16. "Prussian militarism" "Prussia was not a country with an army, but an army with a country which served as headquarters and food magazine
17. Fredrick II the great one of the best educated and most cultured monarchs in the 18th century, well versed in enlightened thought
18. "the first servant of the state" the king
19. Maria Theresa An empress, forced to accept the privileges of the Hungarian nobility and the right of her Hungarian subjects to have their own laws, curtailed the role of the diets or provincial assemblies in taxation and local administration
20. Joseph II carried on his mothers chief goal of enhancing Habsburg power within the monarchy and Europe
21. Catherine II the great an intelligent woman who was familiar with the works of the philosophes, could not afford to alienate the Russian nobility
22. serfs Catherine's subsequent policies had the effect of strengthening the landholding class at the expense of all others
23. Emelyn Pugachev an illiterate cossack, succeeded in welding the disparate elements of discontent into a mass revolt
24. Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji the Russians gained some land, the privilege of protecting Greek Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, and the right to sail in Turkish waters
25. partitions of Poland Russia gained about 50% of Polish territory
26. War of the Austrian Succession The new Prussian ruler took advantage of the new empress to invade Austrian Silesia
27. Silesia The land that Prussia seized in the Austrian succession and still fought over in the seven years' war
28. Robert Clive he British ruler during the seven years' war
29. Seven Years' War A diplomatic ervolution, Maria theresa refused to accept the loss of Silesia: War in India and the French and Indian War
30. French-Indian War William Pitt the Elder, was convinced that the destruction of the French colonial empire was a necessary prerequisite for the creation of Britain's own colonial empire
31. Montcalm and Wolfe The two generals that died in the French-Indian War
32. Treaty of Paris The French was forced to make peace: they ceded Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi to Britain.
33. scurvy and yellow fever Conditions on ships were poor and created these diseases
34. press-ganged crews were frequently press-ganged into duty because of these diseases
35. coitus interruptus and infanticide abandonment to foundling homes
36. potatoes and maize important american crop, brought over to Europe from america in the 16th century
37. agricultural enclosures largely destroyed the traditional patterns of English village life
38. Bank of England unlike other banks it also made loans
39. "banknotes" paper backed in its credit
40. John Law's "bubble" Law's company and bank went bankrupt, leading to a loss of confidence in paper money that prevented the formation of a French national bank
41. the "putting-out" or "domestic" system A merchant-capitalist entrepreneur bought the raw materials and "put them out" to rural workers, who spun the raw materials into warn then wove it into cloth on simple loons
42. Richard Arkwright's "water-frame" powered by horse or water, which turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels
43. the country house fulfilled a new desire for greater privacy that was reflected in the growing separation between the lower and upper floors: lower floors were devoted to public activities and the lower floors to private activities
44. Thomas Gainsborough painted conversation in the park, captures the relaxed life of two aristocrats in the park of their country estate
45. Grand Tour Thomas Coke, along with many others, In one peak year alone, forty thousand Englishmen were raveling in Europe
46. Herculaneum and Pompeii The accidental rediscovery of this accident roman town made them a popular eighteenth-century tourists attraction
47. London's one million the biggest city in Europe, with 1 million inhabitants
48. beggars and prostitutes depended on charity for food
49. "balance of power" a distribution of power along several states such that no single nation can dominate or interfere with the interests of another
50. "reason of state" A ruler and a minister looked beyond dynastic interest to the long-term future of their states.
Created by: ambrecooper