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Med Term Mod 16

Skin Pathologies/Conditions, Lab Tests & Clinical Procedures

crust collection of dried serum & cellular debris
example of crust is a scab
when crust forms from the drying of a body exudate it can be linked to eczema, impetigo, & seborrhea
cyst thick-walled, closed sac/pouch containing fluid/semisolid material
examples of cysts are pilondial & sebaceous
pilondial cyst found over sacral area in midline, contains hairs
sebaceous cyst collection of yellowish, cheesy sebum commonly found on scalp, vulva, & scrotum
erosion wearing away/loss of epidermis
do not penetrate below dermoepidermal junction erosion
erosions occur as a result of inflammation/injury & heal without scarring
fissue groove/crack-like sore
break in the skin lining anal canal anal fissue
macule discolored, often reddened flat lesion
nodule solid, round/oval elevated lesion, more than 1cm in diameter
enlarged lymph node & solid growths are examples of nodules
papule small (<1cm in diameter), solid elevation of skin
pimples are examples of papules
when papules become confluent they form plaques
plaques a superficial, solid, elevated skin lesion
polyp benign growth extending from surface of mucous membrane
commonly found in nose & sinuses, urinary bladder & uterus polyps
pustule small elevation of skin contanining pus
small abcess on the skin pustule
abcess collection of pus
ulcer open sore on skin/mucous membranes within body
caused by pressure that results from lying in one position decubitus ulcer
decubitus ulcer bedsore
pressure ulcers usually involve loss of tissue substance & pus/exudate formation
exudate a fluid with a high content of protein and cellular debris that has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation
vesicle small collection of clear fluid (serum)
blisters are considered vesicles from a few mm to 1cm
vesciles form in the case of burns, allergies & dermatitis
bulla large vesicle <1cm
plural for bulla bullae
wheal smooth, slightly elevated, edematous area that is redder/paler than surrounding skin
edematous swollen
as in a misquito bite, wheals are circumscribed
wheals may involve a wide area, as in the case of an allergic reaction
accompanied by itching & seen in the case of hives, anaphylaxis & insect bites
alopecia baldness or absence of hair from areas where it normally grows
may be hereditary or be caused by disease, injury, or treatment such as chemotherapy alopecia
alopecia areata idiopathic condition in which hair falls out in patches
ecchymosis bluish-black mark (bruise) on the skin
ecchymoses plural of ecchymosis
caused by hemorrhages into skin from injury or spontaneous leaking of blood from vessels ecchymosis
petechia small, pinpoint hemorrhage
smaller verion of ecchymoses petechia
purpura bleeding into the skin
petechia and ecchymoses are forms of purpura
pruritus itching
arises as a result of stimulation of nerves in skin by substances released in allergic reactions or by irritation caused by substances in blood/foreign bodies pruritus
pruritus is a symptom associated with most forms of dermatitis
urticaria acut allergic reaction in which red, round wheals develop on skin; hives
may be intense with localized edema, & commonly caused by allergy to foods urticaria
acne chronic papular & pustular eruption of skin with increased production of sebum
acne vulgaris caused by buildup of sebum & keratin in pores of skin
blackhead comedo, plural comedones
sebum plug partially blocking the pore blackhead
whitehead if a por becomes completely blocked by a sebum plug, or blackhead
papules, pustules & cysts can form when bacteria in skin break down sebum, producing inflammation in tissue
long-term antibiotic use & medications to dry out the skin are treatments for acne
these medications are used to prevent comedo Benzoyl peroxide & tretinoin (Retin-A)
used to treat severe cystic acne isotretinoin (Accutane)
burns injury to tissues caused by heat contact
may be caused by dry heat, moist heat, cheicals, lightening, electricity, or radiation burns
first-degree burns superficial epidermal lesions, erythema, hyperesthesia, & no blisters
sunburn is an example of a first-degree burn
second-degree burns epidermal & dermal lesions, erythema, hyperesthesia, & blisters
second-degree burns are also called partial-thickness burn injury
third-degree burns epidermis & dermis are destroyed & subcutaneous layer damaged, leaving charred white tissue
third-degree burns are also called full-thickness burn injury
cellulitis diffuse, acute infection of skin marked by local heat, redness, pain & swelling
abcesses & tissue destruction can occur if antibiotics are not taken for treament of cellulitis
area susceptible to cellulitis areas of poor lymphatic drainage
eczema inflammatory skin disease with erthymetous, papulovesicular lesions; chronic/acute atopic dermititis
eczema tends to occur in patients with family history of allergic reactions
rash can occur on face, neck, elbows & kness in the case of eczema
eczema treatment is on a case-by-case basis, but usually includes corticosteriods
exanthematous viral disease rash of skin due to viral infection
rubella, rubeola & varicella are examples of exanthematous viral disease
exanthema means rash
rubella german measles
rubeola measles
varicella chickenpox
gangrene death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply
can result from injury, inflammation, frostbite, diabetes, or arteriosclerosis gangrene
in patients with gangrene, ischemia leads to necrosis of tissue follwed by bacterial invasion & putrefaction
putrefaction proteins are decomposed by bacteria
impetigo bacterial inflammatory skin disorder
contagious pyoderma usually caused by staphylococci or stretococci impetigo
effective treatments for impetigo include systemic use of antibiotics & proper cleansing of lesions
pyoderma inflammatory, purulent (pertaining to or consisting of pus) dermatitis
psoriasis chronic inflammatory skin disorder; thick, scaly lesions form because of excess epithelial cell growth rate
psoriasis commonly involves elbows, knees, scalp, back & genetalia
psoriasis is caused by an increased rate of growth of the basal layer of the epidermis
cause is unknown, condition may run in families & may be worsened by anxiety psoriasis
psoriasis treatment includes topical lubricants, keratolytics, & steriods
psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA) light therapy cay also be used to treat psoriasis
scabies contagious, parasitic (scabies itch mite)infection of stratum corneum with intense pruritus
scabies commonly affects areas such as the groin, nipples, & skin between the fingers
treatment for scabies mites includes topical medication cream to destroy the tiny parasites
scabies comes from the Latin word scabere, which means to scratch
systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE) chronic autoimmune disease of collagen in the skin of joints & internal organs
characteristic "butterfly" pattern of redness over the cheeks & nose is found in patients with SLE
severe cases of SLE can also include increased erthema & all exposed areas of the skin may be involved
SLE treatment includes corticosteriods & immunosuppressive drugs to control symptoms
discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) milder, scaling, plaque-like, superficial eruption os skin
discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is confined to the face, scalp, ears, chest, arms & back
reddish patches heal leaving scars on patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE)
tinea means ringworm
tinea corporis infection is in a pink to red, ring-like pattern, highly contagious & causes severe pruritus
tinea pedis athlete's foot; affects skin between toes
tinea capitis affects skin on the scalp
tinea barbae affects skin under a beard
tinea unguium affects the nails
anitfungal agents are used to treat forms of tinea
Latin tinea means worm or moth
Romans thought that skin affected with tinea looked "moth-eaten"
vitiligo loss of pigment in areas of skin
depigmentation & milk-white patches occur with vitiligo
vitiligo is also known as leukoderma
vitiligo has an increased association with autoimmune conditions, such as thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism, & diabetes mellitus
callus increased growth of cells in keratin layer of epidermis caused by pressure/friction
feet and hands are common sites for the formation of calluses
corn type of callus that forms a hard core
whitish, corn-like central kernal hard core of a corn
keloid hypertrophied, thickened, scar occuring after trauma/surgical incision
keloids result from excessive collagen formation in skin during connective tissue repair
the term keloid comes from the Greek kelis, meaning blemish
treaments for keloids are usually surgical excision combined with intralesional steriod injections/low-dose radiotherapy
cicatrix normal scar left by a healed wound
keratosis thickened & reddened area of epidermis, usually associated with aging/skin damage
actinic keratoses are caused by thickening of outer layer of skin due to overexposure to sun; sometimes precancerous lesions
seborrheic keratoses result from overgrowth of basal cells, well circumscribed, slightly elevated, pigmented ^ often pruritic growths
leukoplakia white, thickened patches on mucous membrane tissue of tounge/cheek
may be caused by chronic inflammation, and is common in smokers leukoplakia
nevus (plural nevi) pigmented lesion of skin
nevi include vascular spiders, hemangiomas, & moles
dilated blood vessels radiating out from a point vascular spiders
may be present at birth, but some are acquired nevus
dysplastic nevi moles that do not form properly & may progress to form a melanoma
verruca epidermal growth caused by a virus
verruca vulgaris common wart, most frequent type
verrucae plantar warts
plantar warts occur on soles of feet
juvenile warts occur on hands & face
venereal warts occur on genitals & around anus
treatments for warts includes removal with acids, electrocautery, or cryosurgery
cryosurgery to remove warts is freezing with liquid nitrogen
warts frequently regrow when the virus remains in the skin
basal cell carcinoma malignant tumor of basal layer of epidermis
most frequent type of skin cancer basal cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing tumor that usually occurs on the face, especially near or on the nose
basal cell carcinoma almost never metastasizes
squamous cell carcinoma malignant tumor of squamous epithelial cells of epidermis
may grow anywhere squamous epithelium is found squamous cell carcinoma
actinic keratoses are premalignant lesions in people with sun-damaged skin
is lesions are not removed actinic keratoses progresses into squamous cell carcinoma
treatment of squamous cell carcinoma includes surgical excision, cryotherapy, curettage, & electrodessication/radiotherapy
malignant melanoma cancerous growth composed of melanocytes
malignant melanoma is attributed to intense exposure to sunlight
usually begins as mottled, light brown to black, flact macule with irregular borders malignant melanoma
in malignant melanoma lesions may turn to shade of red, blue & white; also may crust on surface
melanomas often arise in preexisting moles (dyplastic nevi)
frequently appear of upper back, lower legs, arms head & neck melanomas
diagnosis of melanomas requires a biopsy
prognosis of melanomas is commonly determined by measuring tumor tickness in millimeters
melanomas often metastasize to the lung, liver, bone & brain
treatment for melanomas include excision of tumor, regional lymphadenectomy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy & radiotherapy
Kaposi sarcoma malignant, vascular, meoplastic growth characterized by cutaneous nodules
Kaposi sarcoma frequently arises on the lower extremities
Kaposi sarcoma nodules ranges in color from deep pink to dark blue & purple
condition associated with AIDS Kaposi sarcoma
bacterial analysis samples of skin are sent to a lab to detect presence of microorganisms
purulent pus-filled
exudate fluid that accumulates
purulent material or exudate are often taken for examination using bacterial analysis
fungal tests scrapings from skin lesions, hair specimens, or mail clipping are sent to a lab for culture & microscopic examination
specimens for fungal tests mar be treated with a potasium hyroxide (KOH) preparation & examined microscopically
a positive KOH test often eliminates the need for a culture, in regards to a fungal test
cryosurgery use of subfreezing temperature via liquid nitrogen application to destroy tissue
curettage use of sharp dermal curette to scrap away a skin lesion
curette is shaped like a spoon or scoop
electrodesiccation tissue is destroyed by burning with an electric spark
procedure used along with curettage to remove & destroy small cancerous lesions with well-defined borders electrodesiccation
Mohs surgery thin layers of malignant growth removed & each is examined under microscope
specialized form of excision to treat basal squamous cell carcinomas & other tumors Mohs surgery
Mohs surgery is also known as microscopically controlled surgery
skin biopsy suspected maliganant skin lesions are removed & sent to pathology lab for microscopic examination
punch biopsy surgical instrument removes a core of tissue by rotation of its sharp, circular edge
shave biopsy tissue is excised using a cut parallel to surface of surrounding skin
skin test reaction of body to substance by observing results of injecting the substance/applying it topically to the skin
skin test are used to diagnose allergies & disease
patch test allergen-treated piece of gauze/filter paper applied to skin
if a patch test is positive the skin will turn red or swollen
scratch test several scratched made in skin & minute amount of test material inserted into scratches
Schick test skin test for diptheria
Mantoux test PPD (purified protein derivative) is a skin test for tuberculosis
Candidiasis Candida changes to a pathogen & casues localized/generalized mucocutaneous disease
paronychial lesions in areas of body where rubbing of opposing surfaces is a common cause of Candidiasis
thrush white plaques attached to oral/vaginal mucous membranes; type of Candidiasis
vulvovaginitis intense itching around the vagina, almost complete lack of vaginal secretions, and tissue atrophy; type of Candidiasis
usual means of entry for bacteria, in cellulitis surgical wound, puncture, insect bite, skin ulcer, or patch of dermatitis
cellulitis on the face needs to be given special attention because infection may extend directly to the brain
mycosis fungoides rare, chronic skin condition caused by infiltration of skin by malignant lymphocytes
cutaneous T cell lymphoma is another name for mycosis fungoides
mycosis fungoides is characterized by generalized erythroderma & large reddish, raised tumors that spread & ulcerate
effective treatments to control mycosis fungoides include cortisone ointments, topical citrogen mustard, & ultraviolet light PUVA
excessive warmth, taking birth control pills, antibiotics, & corticosteriods can cause normal Candida on mucous membranes to change to Candidiasis
lesions pathological change in body tissue caused by injury/disease; can assume variety of forms depending on specific cause
Primary lesions arise from normal skin as the result of a pathologic process
secondary lesions develop from changes to the primary injury
erosion wearing away/loss of epidermal tissue
erosion & crust are examples of secondary lesions
many lesions are associated with no sensations
example of lesion's that do have sensations ulcer
a cyst is considered a primary lesion
forms in response to a parasitic infections or obstruction of duct/gland a cyst
examples of a primary lesion a vescile
wheals following an insect bite would be a(n) primary lesion
fissures may form in response to inflammation, infection or injury worsening
fissures are crack-like secondary lesions
uticaria is characterizes vy eruption of edematous wheals
ulcer formation of crate-like sore resulting from deterioration in response to inflammation, infections, malignancy, or response to external pressure on skin
exanthuem skin eruption/rash accompanied by inflammation
exanthematous viral disease highly commucable illness caused by viral infections
characterized by outbreak of maculopapular lesions
lesions asociated with impetigo commonly form around the mouth & nostrils
begin as macules, progressing to viscles becoming purulent & encased lesions associated with impetigo
bacterial analyses of samples of purulent material are performed to determine which bacterial agent caused the infection impetigo
dermabrasion surgical procedures for removing scars
chemabrasion application of chemicals that remove surface layers of skin cells
chemabrasion is also called chemical abrasion
phenol peel is an example of chemabrasion
onycholysis is seen most often with the use of artificial fingernails
used often to identofy causative agent in ezcema skin testing
fungal infection of skin which may affect stratum corneum, hair or nails with ring-like pattern of lesions tinea
fungal tests using scrapings from the skin lesions help to identify the type of fungal growth tinea
characterized by a papular, puritic rash; transmitted by direct contact scabies
scabies most often affects webs of fingers, flexor surfaces of wrist & thighs
scleroderma hardening of skin; chronic progressive disorder of connective tissue
degenerative changes from scleroderma can involve the skin, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, & internal organs
collagen is over produced as part of this disease process scleroderma
scleroderma has no known etiology, although systemic spread of the disorder may be linked to an autoimmune dysfunction
debridement removing damaged tissue
debridement is an important step in burn healing therapy
debridement may be performed in a hydrotherapy bath
most skin neoplasms are benign
benign skin growths can arise from the epidermis, sweat/sebaceous glands or connective tissue
keratosis lesion that develops as a result of excessive growth & thickening of epidermis
common benign neoplasm keratosis
commonly observed among elderly, occuring on face, neck, chest & upper back seborrehic keratosis
lesions are reddened, irregular & raised with a rough surface actinic keratosis
actinic keratosis lesions are usually found on face, hands, neck & arms
hemangioma benign tumor made up of a bundle of blood vessels
mole/nevus circumscribed, hyperpigmented area of skin
Created by: lfrancois