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Ankle Foot Joints

QuestionAnswer
What are the articular surfaces of the superior tibiofibular joint? Lateral condyle of tibia and head of fibula. Flat, oval facets covered and connected by capsule and ligament
What is the classification of the superior tibiofibular joint? Synovial, diarthrodial, planar
What tendon sometimes communicates with the synovial cavity of the superior tibiofibular join? Popliteus
What are the ligaments in the superior tibiofibular joint? Anterior tibiofibular ligament of the head of fibula, posterior tibiofibular ligament of the head of the fibula, interosseous membrane
What is the motion for the superior tibiofibular joint? Superior gliding movement with dorsiflexion, inferior gliding movement with plantar flexion
What can be said about the motion at the superior tibiofibular joint in comparison to the inferior tibiofibular joint? Superior motion impossible without first movement from inferior
What is the classification of the inferior tibiofibular joint? Syndesmosis (fibrous)
What are the articular surfaces of the inferior tibiofibular joint? Rough surface of distal fibula and fibular notch (tibia). Interosseous ligament continues with interosseous membrane forming the strong connection between distal ends
What are the ligaments in the inferior tibiofibular joint? Posterior tibioligament, anterior tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane
What is the motion for the inferior tibiofibular joint? Gliding motion inferiorly and superiorly in both plantar and dorsiflexion. Contributes to strength of ankle joint itself by forming strong union between distal ends of tibia and fibula
What makes up the talocrural joint? Between talus and crus (lower leg of tibia and fibula)
What is the classification of the talocrural joint? Synovial
What is the DOF of talocrural joint? Uniaxial
Ability of foot to change from flexible to rigid structure within a single step is dependent on? Bone structure of the 3 arches of the foot, static ligament-fascial support, dynamic muscle contraction
Body weight is transferred to the ground mainly through which points? 3 points via 3 arches - medial and lateral longitudinal arch, transverse arch
Which is the longest and highest arch? Medial longitudinal arch
What makes up the medial longitudinal arch? Calcaneus, talus, navicular, medial cuneiform, and first metatarsal
What makes up the lateral longitudinal arch? Calcaneus, cuboid, 5th metatarsal
What makes up the transverse arch? Midtarsal and tarsometatarsal areas
Which muscles have major effects on the transverse arch and tighten longitudinal arch? Tibialis posteror and fibularis longus
Which muscles span the medial arch? FHL and abductor hallucis
Which muscle runs the length of the lateral arch? Abductor digiti minimi
Which muscles run the midplantar length and tighten longitudinal arches? FDB, FDL, quadratus plantae
Which muscle affects the transverse arch? Adductor hallucis
Describe the importance in function of the muscles of the toes in an open and closed chain motion Open - limited Closed - great importance
Where are the posterior/anterior tibiofibular ligament? Extend from fibular notch of tibia to anterior/posterior surface of lateral malleolus
What do the anterior/posterior tibiofibular ligaments hold together? Maleoli
What are the movements of the talocrural joint? Plantar flexion and dorsiflexion
How many degrees of movement can the talocrural joint move for plantar flexion? 30-50
How many degrees of movement can the talocrural joint move for dorsiflexion? 20-30
Why is the range of motion for dorsiflexion smaller than for plantar flexion at the talocrural joint? Because Gastrocnemius tightness limits the motion
What are the articular surfaces of the ankle joint? Superior (trochlear), medial surface, lateral surface - covered by cartilage and are within fibrous capsule
Describe the superior (trochlear articular surface of the ankle joint? Convex antero-posteriorly is depressed centrally by longitudinal groove bound by medial/lateral lips. Surface is broader anteriorly > posteriorly. Surface corresponds to shape of surface on inferior aspect of tibia with sagittal line for trochlear groove
Describe the medial articular surface of talocrural joint Body of talus is nearly plane and articulate with facet on lateral surface of medial malleolus lined by cartilage
Describe the lateral surface of talocrural joint Is in contact with articular facet of medial surface of lateral malleolus
Where is the fibrous capsule at the talocrural joint thinnest and strongest? Thinnest anteriorly/posteriorly; strongest laterally/medially
What makes a strong mortise for the trochlea? Tibia and fibula bound together by anterior/posterior tibiofibular ligaments
What can the ligaments of the ankle joint bet divided into Two main groups: lateral and medial (deltoid) collateral ligaments
Which group of ligaments is stronger for the ankle joint? Medial (deltoid) collateral is stronger
What does the lateral collateral ligament of the ankle joint connect to? Attaches to lateral malleolus to the talus and calcaneus and is made up of three separate bands (ligaments)
What are the ligaments of the lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle joint? Anterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament, and posterior talofibular ligament
What are the ligaments of the medial (deltoid) collateral ligaments of the ankle joint? 4 bands - anterior tibiotalar ligament, tibionavicular ligament, tibiocalcaneal ligament, and posterior tibiotalar ligament
What is a sprain? Ligament tear
What is a strain? Muscle or tendon tear
What is a 1st degree inversion sprain? Tears one ligament
What ligament is usually torn during a 1st degree inversion sprain? Anterior talofibular ligament
What is a 2nd degree inversion sprain? Tear of two ligaments
What ligaments are usually torn in a 2nd degree inversion sprain? Talofibular ligament (anterior or posterior) and calcaneofibular ligament
What is a 3rd degree inversion sprain? Tear all 3 lateral ligaments
What ligaments are town in a 3rd degree inversion sprain? Talofibular ligament (anterior and posterior) and calcaneofibular ligament
What is the most common sprained ligament for the ankle? Anterior talofibular ligament
What is an eversion sprain? Excessive eversion
What is most commonly associated with fracture for the ankle? Eversion sprain
What is a high ankle sprain or syndesmotic ankle sprain? Talus shoved between tibia and fibular or tear of interosseous membrane
What are the 3 functional areas of the foot? Hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot
What is in the hindfoot? Calcaneus, talus
What is in the midfoot? Cuboid, navicular, 3 cuneiforms
What is in the forefoot? Metatarsals and phalanges
What is the subtalar (talocalcaneal joint) Synovial joint between inferior surface of talus and superior surface of calcaneus
What are the articular surfaces for the subtalar joint? Talus and calcaneus have 3 facets (anterior, middle, and posterior)
What kind of joint is the subtalar joint? Planar synovial
What are the motions for the subtalar joint? Inversion/eversion (open chain motions); supination/pronation (closed chain motions)
How many degrees of movement is inversion/supination? 45-60
How many degrees of movement is eversion/pronation? 15-30
What are the ligaments of the subtalar joint? Interosseous talocalcaneal ligament, medial/lateral talocalcaneal ligament, anterior/posterior talocalcaneal ligament
What two joints make up the transverse tarsal joint? Talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joint
What is the transverse tarsal joint also called? Midtarsal or Chopart's joint
What is the motion of the transverse tarsal joint? Complex - generally inversion/eversion; movement of forefoot and midfoot on hindfoot to lower longitudinal arch in pronation and to elevate it in supination; positions forefoot for contact with ground during gait
What are the ligaments of the transverse tarsal joint? Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (Spring), dorsal talonavicular ligament, bifurcate ligament, long plantar ligament, plantar calcaneocuboid (short) ligament
What ligament is very important for maintaining the longitudinal arch of foot for the transverse tarsal joint? Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament)
What makes up the bifurcate ligament of the transverse tarsal joint? Calcaneonavicular and calcaneocuboid ligament
What is a lisfranc fracture? Separation or fracture of tarsometatarsal joints
What are the articular surfaces of the tarsometatarsal joint? Metatarsal bones with all 3 cuneiforms and cuboid bones
What kind of joint is the tarsometatarsal joint Synovial planar
What is the movement of the tarsometatarsal joint? Gliding of bones upon each other with plantar flexion and dorsiflexion
What are the ligaments of the tarsometatarsal joint? Plantar/dorsal metatarsal ligament, dorsal/plantar tarsometatarsal ligament
What is the function of the tarsometatarsal joint? Maintain contact with ground at all times
What are the articular surfaces of the metatarsophalangeal joint? MTPS: between head of metatarsal and base of proximal phalanges of toes 1-5
What kind of joint are the metatarsophalangeal joint? Synovial condylar
What kind of motion is seen at the metatarsophalangeal joint? Flexion/extension, abduction/adduction
What are the ligaments of the metatarsophalangeal joint? Collateral, plantar, and deep transverse metatarsal ligament
How many degrees of movement are seen in flexion at the MTP joint? 75
How many degrees of movement are seen in extension at the MTP joint? 35
What is hallux valgus? Deformity of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint - characterized by lateral drift of great toe in association with joint subluxation
What is hallux rigidus? Deformity where there is a limitation to normal movement of flexion and extension (sagittal plane) leading to joint degeneration
What are the articular surfaces of the interphlangeal joitns? PIP: between head of proximal phalange and base of middle phalange of toes 2-5 DIP: between head of middle phalange and base of distal phalange of toes 2-5 big toe: only one IP joint
What is the classification of IP joints? Synovial hinge
What kind of motion is seen at IP joints? Flexion/extension
How many degrees of movement are seen in flexion at the IP joint? 60 degrees
How many degrees of movement are seen in extension at the IP joint? 20 degrees
The ability of the foot to change from flexible to rigid in a single step depends on what? Bony structure of 3 arches of foot, static ligament-fascial support, dynamic muscle contraction
What are the 3 arches of the food? Medial/lateral longitudinal arch, transverse arch
What arch is the longest and highest? Medial longitudinal arch
What makes up the medial longitudinal arch? Calcaneus, talus, navicular, medial cuneiform, and 1st metatarsal bone
How does the lateral longitudinal arch compare to the medial? It is lower
What makes up the lateral longitudinal arch? Calcaneus, cuboid, 5th metatarsal bone
How does the transverse arch compare to the other arches? Concave from medial to lateral in midtarsal and tarsometatarsal areas
To prevent the two ends from moving apart, a tie-rod is placed across base of foot, what is the tie-rod? Plantar aponeurosis, as well as contraction of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of foot
When muscles contract in closed chain motion, what does the force produce on the arches? Tightens the arches
What is the role of tibialis posterior and fibularis longus with respect to the arch? Major effect on transverse arch but also tighten longitudinal arch
What muscles span the medial arch? Flexor hallucis longus and abductor hallucis
What muscle spans the lateral arch? Abductor digiti minimi
What muscles run the midplantar length? Flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, flexor digitorum longus
What muscles tighten the longitudinal arches? Tibialis posterior, fibularis longus, flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, flexor digitorum longus
What muscles affect the transverse arch? Tibialis posterior, fibularis longus, adductor hallucis
When do the muscles of the toes have limited function? In open chain motion
When do the muscles of the toes have great importance? In closed chain motions of walking and running
Created by: nnguyen44
 

 



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