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Leg and Foot Muscles

Leg and Foot muscles

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 compartments that the intermuscular septae divide the leg into? Anterior Lateral Posterior
What is the action of each compartment in the leg? Anterior - dorsiflexion, inversion Lateral - plantar flexion, eversion Posterior - plantar flexion, inversion
What action does each layer of the posterior compartment of the leg contribute to? Superficial - plantar flexion Deep - inversion, flexion of toes, plantar flexion
What innervates each compartment in the leg? Anterior - deep fibular (peroneal) nerve Lateral - superficial fibular (peroneal) Posterior - tibial nerve (both layers)
Why isn't there a medial compartment in the leg? Because of tibia
What is most common to each compartment? Function
What would happen if patient loses innervation in a compartment? Function is compromised
How would we want to work on a particular function of a particular joint? Work the muscles as a group
Dorsal and plantar flexion is movement around which joint? Ankle
What innervates everything below the knee? Sciatic nerve
What does the sciatic nerve divide into? Tibial or common fibular (peroneal)
What does "common" indicate in the name of a nerve? That it usually divides into two branches
What does the common fibular divide into? Deep fibular and superficial fibular
Which compartment does the tibial nerve innervate? Posterior
What compartment does the deep fibular nerve innervate? Anterior
What compartment does the superficial fibular nerve innervate? Lateral
Does the same nerves that innervate each compartment in the leg include skin innervation? No
What does the word hallux or hallucis closely associate? Big toe
What does the word digitorum closely associate? Digits 2-5 There are exceptions
True or false. Superficial fascia has free nerve endings. True
True or false. Deep fascia has dense CT True
What is the function of the deep fascia? Separates compartments Wraps whole area and keeps muscles in place
What is the deep fascia in the thigh called? Fascia latae
What is the deep fascia in the leg called? Crural fascia
What is the IT band? Thickening of deep fascia
What is a retinaculum Thickening of deep fascia around ankle
What is the function of the retinaculum? Retains tendons in place
What would happen to the muscles if there was no retinaculum? Bowing of muscles
What side does the extensor retinaculum keep in place? Anterior
What side does the fibular retinaculum keep in place? Behind lateral malleolus
What side does flexor retinaculum keep in place? Behind medial malleolus
What are the superficial muscles in the posterior leg compartment? Gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris
What are the deep muscles in the posterior leg compartment? Flexor hallucis longus Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior Popliteus
What is the cross rule for the deep group muscles in the posterior leg compartment? FHL originates at posterior fibul FDL originates at posterior tibia TP originates at both *FHL and FDL criss cross from origin to insertion
What is the name of the gastrocnemius and soleus? Triceps surea
What is the origin of the gastrocnemius? Medial head - medial condyle of femur Lateral head - lateral condyle of femur
What is the insertion of the gastrocnemius? Calcaneus
What is the action of the gastrocnemius? Knee flexion Plantar flexion Inversion
What is the origin of the soleus Soleal line Head of fibula Posterior proximal fibula
What is the insertion of the soleus? Calcaneus
What is the action of the soleus? Plantar flexion Inversion
What is the origin of the plantaris? Lateral supracondylar line
What is the insertion of the plantaris? Achilles tendon
What is the action of plantaris? Plantar flexion
If we were to remove this muscle, what would happen to the ankle? Nothing
Which muscle would be used to get a graft from? Plantaris
What is the origin of the flexor hallucis longus? Middle posterior fibula Interosseous membrane
What is the insertion of flexor hallucis longus? Distal phalanx of big toe
What is the action of flexor hallucis longus? Flexion of big toe (at all joints) Plantar flexion Inversion
What does "longus" usually indicate in the muscle name? Travels long distance so it inserts at distal phalange
What does "brevis" usually indicate in the muscle name? Travels short distances so inserts at proximal phalange
What is the origin of flexor digitorum longus? Posterior tibia
What is the insertion of flexor digitorum longus? Distal phalanx of 2-5 toes
What is the action of flexor digitorum longus? Inversion at subtalar joint Plantar flexion at ankle joint Flexion of 2-5 toes at all joints
What is the origin of tibialis posterior? Posterior tibia and fibula Interosseous membrane
What is the insertion of tibialis posterior? All tarsal and metatarsal except talus, 1st, and 5th metatarsal
What is the movement of tibialis posterior from its origin to insertion? From origin, moves down and passes medial malleolus and sole of foot to its insertion
What is the action of tibialis posterior? Plantar flexion Inversion
What is the origin of popliteus? Lateral side of lateral femoral condyle Lateral meniscus
What is the insertion of popliteus? Posterior surface of tibia Head of fibula *attaches above soleal line
What is the action of popliteus? Knee flexion Medial rotation of tibia on femur
What is the relationship between rotation for flexion and extension of the knee? During gait, have flexion, extension, and rotation During flexion, have internal rotation - unlocks knee joint During extension, have external rotation - locks knee joint
Why is there rotation at the knee joint during gait? Different sizes of the condyles and because we want to lock knee joint
What is the key to unlocking the knee joint? Popliteus
Where is the popliteal fossa? Behind knee joint Lower part of femur Upper part of tibia
What is the shape of the popliteal fossa? Diamond shaped depression
Why is the popliteal fossa in the back and the cubital fossa in front? Rotation of limbs during embryo
What makes up the superior borders of the popliteal fossa? Laterally - biceps femoris Medially - semitendinosus, semimembranosus
What makes up the inferior borders of the popliteal fossa? Laterally - lateral head of gastrocnemius Medially - medial head of gastrocnemius
What makes up the roof of the popliteal fossa? Deep and superficial fascia
What is inside the popliteal fossa? Popliteal artery and vein Tibial nerve and its branches Common fibular nerve and its branches Popliteal lymph nodes and fat
What is on the roof of the popliteal fossa? Superficial vein (within superficial fascia) - small saphenous vein
What muscles make up the anterior compartment of the leg? Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus Fibularis tertius
What is the origin of the tibialis anterior? Upper half and lateral condyle of tibia
What is the insertion of tibialis anterior? 1st metatarsal and middle cuneiform
What are the main invertors in the leg? Tibialis anterior and posterior
What muscle has the same insertion as tibialis anterior? Fibularis longus
What is the origin of extensor hallucis longus? Anterior tibia Interosseous membrane
What is the insertion of extensor hallucis longus? Distal phalanx of big toe
What is the action of extensor hallucis longus? Dorsiflexion Inversion Extends big toe
What is the origin of extensor digitorum longus? Anterior fibula Lateral condyle of tibia
What is the insertion of extensor digitorum longus? Dorsal digitorum expansion -hood to mid and distal digits
What muscle inserts at the tendon of extensor digitorum longus? Extensor digitorum brevis
What is the action of extensor digitorum longus? Dorsiflexion Inversion Extends toes 2-5
What is the origin of fibularis tertius? Anterior fibula (distal)
What is the insertion of fibularis tertius? Base of 5th metatarsal bone
Does fibularius tertius move the pinky toe since it inserts there? No, because it is inserted at the base.
What word would indicate movement around the pinky toe in the muscle name? Minimi
What muscle has the same insertion as fibularis tertius? Fibularis brevis
What muscles make up the lateral compartment of the leg? Fibularis longus Fibularis brevis
What is the origin of fiblularis longus? Head and upper 1/2 of fibula
What is the insertion of fibularis longus? 1st metatarsal and middle cuneiform
What muscle has the same insertion as fibularis longus? tibialis anterior
What is the origin of fibularis brevis? Lower 1/2 of fibula
What is the insertion of fibularis brevis? Base of 5th metatarsal bone
What is the movement of fibularis longus from origin to insertion? From origin moves down and passes lateral malleolus All the way through to medial side
What muscles are in the dorsum of the foot? Extensor digitorum brevis Extensor hallucis brevis
What is the origin of the two muscles in the dorsum of the foot? Calcaneus on dorsum of foot
What is the insertion of extensor digitorum brevis? tendon of extensor digitorum longus
What is the insertion of extensor hallucis brevis? Base of proximal phalanx of big toe
What is the action of the extensor digitorum brevis? Extends toes 2-4
What is the action of the extensor hallucis brevis? Extension of big toe
How many layers of muscles are in the soles of the feet? 4
What are the muscles in the first layer in the soles of the feet? Abductor hallucis Flexor digitorum brevis Abductor digiti minimi
What are the muscles in the second layer in the soles of the feet? Quadratus plantae Lumbricals
What are the tendons in the second layer in the soles of the feet? Flexor hallucis longus Flexor digitorum longus
What makes up the second layer in the soles of the feet 2 tendons - FHL, FDL 2 muscles - quadratus plantae, lumbricals
What are the muscles in the third layer in the soles of the feet? Flexor hallucis brevis Adductor hallucis Flexor digiti minimi brevis pedis
What are the muscles in the fourth layer in the soles of the feet? Plantar interossei Dorsal interossei
What is common to the 1st layer of muscles in the soles of the feet? Origin - calcaneus and plantar fascia
What is the insertion of abductor hallucis? Medial side of proximal phalanx of big toe
What is the action of abductor hallucis? Abducts big toe
What is the insertion of flexor digitorum brevis? Middle phalanx of toes 2-5
What is the action of flexor digitorum brevis? Flexes toes 2-5 except at DIP
What is the innervation of flexor digitorum brevis? Medial nerve
What is the innervation of adductor hallucis? Medial nerve
What is the insertion of abductor digiti minimi? Lateral base of proximal phalanx of pinky toe
What is the action of abductor digiti minimi? Abductors and flexes pinky toe
What is the innervation of abductor digiti minimi? Lateral nerve
What is the origin of quadratus plantae? Calcaneus
What is the insertion of quadratus plantae? Tendon of FDL
What is the action of quadratus plantae? Flexion of toes
What is the innervation of quadratus plantae? Lateral nerve
What is the origin of lumbricals? Tendon of FDL
What is the insertion of lumbricals? Proximal phalanges
What is the action of lumbricals? Flexion at MTP
What is the innervation of lumbricals? Medial at 2nd toe Lateral at 3-5
What is the origin of flexor hallucis brevis? Cuboid Lateral cuneiform
What is the insertion of flexor hallucis brevis? Proximal phalange of big toe (both sides medial/lateral)
What is the action of flexor hallucis brevis? Flexes big toe
What is the origin of adductor hallucis? Oblique head - metatarsals 2-4 Transverse head - plantar metatarsophalangeal ligament
What is the insertion of adductor hallucis? Lateral side of proximal phalanx of big toe
What is the action of adductor hallucis? Adducts big toe
What is the innervation of flexor hallucis brevis? Medial
What is the innervation of adductor hallucis? Lateral
What is the origin of flexor digiti miniimi brevis pedis? 5th metatarsal
What is the insertion of flexor digiti minimi brevis pedis? Proximal phalanx of pinky toe
What is the action of flexor digiti minimi brevis pedis? Flexes pinky toe
What is the innervation of flexor digiti minimi brevis pedis? Lateral
What is the innervation of the 4th layer of the soles of the feet? Lateral
What is the origin of the dorsi interossei? Space between all metatarsal
How many dorsi interossei are there in the foot? 4
What is the insertion of the dorsi interossei? Proximal side of 2nd phalange Medial side of 2-4 phalange
What is the action of dorsi interossei? Abducts 2-4 toes
What is the origin of plantar interossei? Medial base of metatarsal 3-5
What is the insertion of plantar interossei? Medial side of proximal phalange 3-5
What is the action of plantar interossei? Adducts 3-5 toes
Created by: nnguyen44