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Lower Limb Bone

Lower Limb Bones

How many vertebrae are in the sacrum? 5 and they're all fused.
What is a crest? 5 spinous processes formed together
What is spina bfida? When the laminate doesn't fuse in spinous process
What is the sacral hiatus? Non-fusion by S5 laminate -enclosed by small piece of fibrocartilage
What makes up the sacral coccygeal joint? Sacral horn articulates with coccyx
What does the auricular surface articulates with? Ilium
What attaches to the ala? Iliac muscle
Hip bone is made by which 3 bones? Ilium Pubis Ischium
What is another name for the hip? Os Coxae Innominate bone
What hip bones make up the acetabulum? All 3 - ilium, pubis, ischium
What crosses the external surface of the hip bone? 3 lines -posterior, anterior, and inferior gluteal line
What muscle attaches to the supra-acetabular groove (sulcus)? Head of Rectus femoris
Where is the supra-acetabular groove located? Surface of ilium
What is the iliac fossa? Internal concave surface
What is behind the iliac fossa? Rough surface that is divided into two portions - anterior and posterior
The anterior portion is also known as Auricular surface
What does the anterior portion articulates with? Similar surface on the side of the sacrum
What is the posterior portion known as Iliac tuberosity
What does the iliac tuberosity attach to? Ligaments
Where is the arcuate line located? Internal surface of the hip bone
Describe the iliac crest Superior convex border Ends in ASIS and PSIS
Where is the iliac tubercle? About 5 cm behind the ASIS
Anterior border of ilium presents two projections. Name them. Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine
Where is the iliopectineal (iliopubic) eminence? Medial to the anterior inferior spine
What marks the point of union of the ilium and pubis? Iliopectineal eminence
Posterior border of the ilium presents two projections. Name them. Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine
What separates the two projections n the posterior border of the ilium? A notch
Where is the greater sciatic notch? A deep notch below the PIIS
How many borders and surfaces are on the hip bone? 5 borders 2 surfaces
What muscle attaches to the ASIS Sartorius and TFL
What attaches to the head of the femur? Lunate surface
What is in the acetabular fossa? Small amount of fat Acts as a reservoir for synovial fluid
Describe the self-locking mechanism of the hip Weight applies on sacrum then tightens the iliac
What is the function of the gluteal line? Separates different gluteus muscles
What bone forms the lower and back part of the hip bone? Ischium
Ischium is divisible into what? Body and a ramus
The body of the ischium makes up how much of the acetabulum 2/5
Where is the ischial spine? Thin eminence that extends backwards from posterior border of ischium
What is above the ischial spine? Greater sciatic notch
What is below the ischial spine? Lesser sciatic notch
Where is the ischial tuberosity located? Posterior-inferior aspect of body of ischium
The ischium rams joins what to form what? It joins the inferior rams of pubis to form inferior border (ischiopubic ramus) of hip bone
What bone forms the anterior and inferior part of hip bone? Pubis
Pubis is divisible into what? Body, superior ramus, and inferior rams
What does the pubic body articulate with on the other side at the pubic symphysis? Pubic bone on other side
Where is the pubic crest located? Superior surface of the body
Where is the pubic tubercle? Lateral end of the body
What does the superior ramus unite with and what is this junction called? Unites with ilium superiorly Junction is a rough eminence - iliopectineal eminence
What forms the upper boundary of the obturator foramen? Superior ramus
What attaches to the margins of the obturator foramen? Obturator membrane
What kind of shape is the inferior rams? Thin and flat
What does the inferior ramus join with to form what? Joints inferior ischial ramus to form inferior border of hip bone (ischia-pubic ramus)
Describe the acetabulum Deep, cup shaped hemispherical depression on lateral surface of hip bone
What forms the acetabulum? Medially - pubis Above - ilium Laterally and below - ischium
Where is the acetabular notch? Below the acetabulum - at bottom
What is the acetabular fossa? Non-articular depression at bottom of the cavity
What is the lunate surface? Curved articular surface that articulates with head of femur
What is the longest and strongest bone in the skeleton? Femur
Describe femur Long bone with a body and two ends
What presents the upper end of the femur? Head Neck Greater trochanter Lesser trochanter
Describe the head of the femur Spherical, directed upwards, medial ward, and a little forward
What is the ovoid depression of the head called? Fovea capitis femoris
Where is the fovea capitis femurs located? Little below and behind center of head
Where is the greater trochanter located? Junction of the neck with the upper part of the body
What kind of shape is the greater trochanter? Large, irregular quadrilateral eminence
What kind of shape is the lesser trochanter? Conical eminence
What does the intertrochanteric line connect? Greater and lesser trochanters on the anterior side
What does the intertrochanteric crest connect? Greater and lesser trochanters on the back
What is the quadrate tubercle? Bony projection on intertrochanteric crest
What strengthens the shaft of the femur? Prominent longitudinal ridge - linea aspera
What three ridges prolong the lines aspera? Lateral - gluteal tuberosity Below - medial and lateral supracondylar ridge
What tip lips make up the lines aspera and where are they? Lateral and medial lips on middle third of bone
What separates the two condyles at the lower end? In front - shallow articular depression - patellar surface Behind - deep notch - intercondylar fossa
Which condyle is more prominent of the femur? Lateral
Which condyle is longer of the femur? Medial
What is above each condyle of the femur? Medial and lateral epicondyle
Where is the adductor tubercle? On top of medial epicondyle
What attaches to the intercondylar fossa? Crucial ligaments (ACL,PCL)
What attaches to the medial surface of the greater trochanter? Superior gemelli, inferior gemelli, and obturator internus
What attaches to the quadratus tubercle? Quadratus femoris
What attaches to the greater trochanter? Piriformis, gluteus medius/minimus, obturator externus/internus
What attaches to the lesser greater? Iliopsoas
What attaches to the linea aspera? Adductor muscles
What is a sesamoid bone? Bone that grow within the tendon or ligament
What are some examples of a sesamoid bone Patella, pisiform
What is the shape of the patella? Flat, triangular - located in front of knee joint
Where does the patella develop in? Tendon of the quadriceps femoris
What makes up the patella? Anterior and posterior surface 3 borders Apex
Describe anterior surface Convex that is covered by expansion from tendon of the quadriceps femoris Continuous below with the patellar ligament
Describe posterior surface Smooth, oval articular area Divided into two facets by vertical ridge Below articular surface, rough-nonarticular area which gives attachment to patellar ligament
Name the 3 borders of the patella Superior, medial, and lateral
What do the borders of the patella attach to? Quadriceps tendon
Describe the apex Pointed which attaches to patellar ligament
What does the patella articulate with? Femur
What kind of one is the tibia? Long bone with two ends and a shaft
What are the two eminences of the upper end of the tibia? Medial and lateral condyles
What separates the two smooth articular facets on the superior articular surface of the tibia? Intercondylar eminence
Where is the tibial tuberosity? Anterior to the condyles
The deep transverse groove posterior to the medial condyle attaches what muscle? Semimembranosus
The flat articular facet of the lateral condyle articulates with what? Head of fibula
Where is Gerdy's tubercle located? On lateral condyle of tibia where iliotibial band inserts
How many borders and surfaces make up the shaft of the tibia? 3 borders 3 surfaces
Which of the borders of the shaft of the tibia is most prominent? Anterior border
Describe the lateral border AKA interosseous border Thin and prominent
Describe the medial surface of the shaft of the tibia Smooth and subcutaneous
Posterior surface of the shaft of the tibia has a prominent ridge on the upper part. What is it called? Soleal line
How many surface make up the lower end of the tibia? 5
What is the process on the lower end of the tibia? Medial malleolus
What is on the lateral surface of the lower end of the tibia? Fibular notch for fibula
Fibula is on what side of the tibia Lateral side Articulates above and below
Describe upper end (head) of fibula Irregular quadrate form and contains articular surface that articulates with lateral condyle of tibia
Describe the apex on the head of fibula Projects upward from the posterior part of the head
How many borders and surfaces are on the shaft of the fibula 3 borders 3 surfaces
Which border gives attachment to the interosseous membrane? Medial (interosseous) border
What is on the lower end of the fibula? Lateral malleolus
Distal end of the of tibia articulates with what bone? Talus
What 3 parts make up the foot? Tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges
How many bones make up the tarsus? 7 tarsal bone, arranged in 3 groups
What are the 3 arrangement of groups in the tarsus Proximal group - talus above and calcaneus below Intermediate group - navicular, articulates posteriorly with head of talus Distal group - cuboid and 3 cuneiforms (lateral, intermediate, and medial)
What makes up the talus? Body, neck, and head
Which surface of the talus articulates with medial and lateral malleolus? Medial surface - medial malleolus Lateral surface - lateral malleolus
What does the superior surface of the talus articulate with? Distal end of tibia
What does the inferior surface of the talus articulate with? Calcaneus
What part of the talus articulates with the navicular bone? Head
Which of the tarsal bones is the largest? Calcaneus
Where is the calcaneus located? Lower and back part of the foot
What is the function of the calcaneus? Transmit weight of body to the ground
How many surfaces of the calcaneus articulates with the talus? 3 superior articular surfaces
What is the calcanea tuberosity? Transverse elevation bounding the inferior (plantar) surface
Where is the sustentaculum tali and what is its function? Medial surface of calcaneus - upper and forepart Below is a groove for tendon of flexor hallucis longs
What does the anterior surface of calcaneus articulate with? Cuboid
Where is the cuboid on the foot? Lateral side of foot In front of calcaneus Behind 4th and 5th metatarsal
The plantar surface of the cuboid has a groove for which muscle? Fibulas (peroneus)
How many bones make up the metatarsus? 5
Axis of foot passes through which toe? 2nd toe and metatarsal bone
What is the implication of the axis on the 2nd toe? Adduction and abduction of toe are considered relative to this toe
How many phalanges are there in the foot? 14 -2 for big toe -3 for the rest of toes
How is the 5th metatarsal bone recognized Tuberosity on lateral side of its base
Created by: nnguyen44



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