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VITAL SIGNS

Introduction to Health Occupations

QuestionAnswer
VITAL SIGNS: Vital signs (VS) include: 1. T which stands for temperature.
Vital signs (VS) include: 2. P which stands for pulse.
Vital signs (VS) include: 3. R which stands for respirations.
Vital signs (VS) include: 4. BP which stands for blood pressure.
BODY TEMPERATURE: The rate (speed) at which the body utilizes (uses) energy is called: metabolism.
A slower metabolism causes the body temperature (t) to: decrease.
Metabolism means the rate (speed) at which the body: utilizes (uses) energy.
A faster metabolism causes the body temperature (T) to: increase.
Body temperature (T) decreases during the resting state of unconsciousness called: sleep.
Body temperature (T) increases during physical exertion which means: hard work.
Body temperature varies (differs) depending on: a. The person.
Body temperature varies (differs) depending on: b. Age.
Body temperature varies (differs) depending on: c. Activity.
Body temperature varies (differs) depending on: d. Time of day.
In the US, body temperature is commonly calibrated (measured) on a scale abbreviated F which stands for: Fahrenheit.
In countries outside the US, body temperature is commonly calibrated (measured) on a scale abbreviated C which stands for: Celsius also known as centigrade.
Celcius (C) to Fahrenheit (F): multiply by 9, divide by 5, add 32.
Fahrenheit (F) to Celcius (C): subtract 32, multiply by 5, divide by 9.
Body temperature (T) >98.6F but <100.4F is called: low-grade pyrexia (fever)
Body temperature (T) >100.3F is called: pyrexia (fever)
Body temperature (T) >104F is called: hyperthermia.
Body temperature (T) >106F can quickly lead to: convulsions (seizures) and death.
Body temperature (T) can be obtained (gotten): 1. PO which stands for by mouth (per os) aka orally.
Body temperature (T) can be obtained (gotten): 2. R which stands for rectally.
Body temperature (T) can be obtained (gotten): 3. A which stands for aurally. Aural (A) means ear(s).
Body temperature (T) can be obtained (gotten): 4. T which stands for temporally. Temporal (T) refers to the forehead.
Body temperature (T) can be obtained (gotten): 5. Ax which stands for axillary. Axillary (Ax) means axillae aka armpit(s).
Body temperature (T) documented (recorded) as 98.6R means: the reading was obtained (acquired or gotten) rectally.
Body temperature (T) documented as 98.6A means: the reading was obtained aurally (ears).
Body temperature (T) documented as 98.6T means: the reading was obtained (acquired or gotten) temporally. Temporal refers to the forehead.
Body temperature documented (recorded) as 98.6Ax means: the reading was obtained axillary. Axillary (Ax) means axilla(e) aka armpit(s).
Body temperature documented (recorded) as 98.6 followed by no sign means: the reading was acquired PO which stands for by mouth (per os) aka orally.
An elevated body temperature (T) is called: fever or pyrexia (pyrexic) or febrile.
Afebrile means: No fever.
Pyrexia (fever) is a sign (Sx) of: infection.
FUO stands for: fever of unknown origin.
PUO stands for: pyrexia of unknown origin.
Body temperature (T) is obtained on an instrument to measure heat called a: thermometer.
TYPES OF THERMOMETERS Thermometer types include: 1. Those made from sand and soka lime called glass.
Thermometer types include: 2. Those that are discarded (trashed) called disposable.
Disposable thermometers are usually made of: plastic or paper.
Thermometer types include: 3. Those powered by electricity called electronic.
Electronic thermometer displays are aka: digital.
Thermometer types include: 4. Electronic devices that measure infrared energy emitted (released) from an eardrum called tympanic.
Thermometer types include: 5. Electronic devices that measure heat in a major artery of the forehead called temporal.
ORAL THERMOMETERS Oral thermometers are usually coded: blue or green.
Before using an oral thermometer the HCP (health care provider) should don: examination (exam) gloves.
An oral thermometer (instrument to measure heat) should be covered with a: protective sleeve called a sheath.
An oral thermometer is placed in the posterior (back) sublingual pocket which means: under the tongue (lingua)
After use, the oral thermometer sheath (protective sleeve or covering) and examination (exam) gloves are immediately discarded (disposed) in a: biohazard bag.
Biohazard means the possibility of containing (having) disease creating microorganisms (microbes) called: pathogens.
Microorganisms (microbes) are forms of life so small that they are: invisible to the naked eye.
RECTAL THERMOMETERS Rectal thermometers are usually color coded: red.
Before using a rectal thermometer, the HCP should: don examination (exam) gloves.
A rectal thermometer should be covered with a protective sleeve called a: sheath.
To reduce friction, a rectal thermometer sheath (protective sleeve) should be covered with a: water soluble lubricant.
A common water soluble lubricant is called: K-Y jelly.
For an adult, the rectal thermometer should be inserted approximately: one (1) inch.
For an infant (<1 year of age) or small child, the rectal thermometer should be inserted approximately: one half (1/2) inch.
After use, the rectal thermometer sheath and examination gloves are: immediately discarded (disposed/trashed/thrown away) in a biohazard bag.
Biohazard means the possibility of containing (having) disease creating microorganisms (microbes) called: pathogens.
GLASS THERMOMETERS Always examine a glass thermometer before use for any: damage.
Be very careful with glass thermometers because they are: breakable.
Before obtaining a temperature (T) with a glass thermometer, carefully shake the liquid inside below: 96.0F.
To obtain (acquire) an accurate (correct) oral temperature (T) a glass thermometer should be left in place for: three (3) minutes.
Read (determine) the temperature on a glass thermometer by holding it at: eye level.
The temperature (T) on a glass thermometer is read (determined) where the: liquid ends.
Each long line on a glass thermometer represents: one (1) degree.
Each short line on a glass thermometer represents: 0.2 aka two(2) tenths of a degree.
Sometimes an arrow on a glass thermometer points to: 98.6F
98.6F is considered: normal body temperature (T).
After us, a glass thermometer is washed and rinsed with cool water and soaked in a disinfectant solution of: 70% isopropyl alcohol for a minimum of thirty (30) minutes.
70% isopropyl alcohol is aka: rubbing alcohol.
ELECTRONIC THERMOMETERS The first thing a HCP should do before using an electronic thermometer is to: read the instructions.
The part of an electronic thermometer that touches the client is called the: probe.
The p robe should be covered with a: sheath.
Sheath means: protective sleeve.
TYMPANIC THERMOMETERS A tympanic thermometer measures the: infrared energy emitted (released) from a tympanic membrane aka the eardrum
The first thing a HCP should do before using a tympanic thermometer is to: read the instructions.
Most tympanic thermometers display body temperature in: One (1) to two (2) seconds.
A tympanic thermometer measures the infrared energy emitted (released) from a: tympanic membrane aka the eardrum.
The part of a tympanic thermometer that touches the client is called a: probe.
TEMPORAL THERMOMETER A temporal thermometer measures heat in a major artery of the forehead called the: temporal artery.
The first thing a HCP should do before using a temporal thermometer is to: read the instructions.
Most temporal thermometers display the body temperature (T) in: one (1) to two (2) seconds.
The area of the forehead scanned by a temporal thermometer should not be covered by: hair or makeup.
Some temporal thermometer probes are placed on the center of the forehead and slowly passed straight toward the top of the ear: keeping in contact with the skin.
Some temporal thermometer probes are held above the center of the: forehead.
A temporal thermometer measures heat in a major artery of the forehead called the: temporal artery.
ORAL THERMOMETER The normal oral (PO) temperature 9T) range for adolescents and adults is: 97.6F - 99.6F. Adolescents are ages 13-19.
Oral temperature is contraindicated (unwise) if the client has: 1. Eaten, drank or smoked in the previous 30 minutes.
Oral temperature is contraindicated (unwise) if the client: 2. Is under age 6.
Oral temperature is contraindicated (unwise) if the client: 3. Has sores in or around the oral cavity (mouth).
Oral temperature is contraindicated (unwise) if the client: 4. Has had recent surgery to the mouth, nose, face or neck.
Oral temperature is contraindicated (unwise) (inadvisable) if the client: 5. Breathes (ventilates) through their mouth.
Oral temperature is contraindicated (unwise) if the client is: 6. Receiving O2 therapy which stands for oxygen treatment.
Oral temperature is contraindicated (unwise) if the client: 7. Has a NG tube which stands for nasogastric tube.
Oral temperature is contraindicated (unwise) if the client: 8. Has a history (hx) of Sz which stands for seizures (epilepsy).
Oral temperature is contraindicated (unwise) if the client: 9. Disorientd which means confused.
Causes of disorientation include: a. AD which stands for Alzheimer's disease.
Causes of disorientation include: b. Drugs under/or ETOH which stands for alcohol (ethanol).
Causes of disorientation include: c. TBI which stands for traumatic brain injury.
Causes of disorientation include: d. ID which stands for intellectual disability.
Causes of disorientation include: e. Psychopathy which means disease condition of the mind.
RECTAL THERMOMETER A rectal thermometer (T) is considered the most accurate because it measures the body's: core (inside) temperature.
The normal rectal temperature (T) range for adolescents (13-19) and adults is: 98.6F to 100.6F.
A rectal temperature (T) is obtained by assisting an adult into the: Sim's position.
The Sim's position means placing an adult on their: left (L) side with their left (L) leg slightly bent and right (R) leg sharply bent and their left (L) arm behind them.
A rectal temperature (T) is obtained by: positioning (placing) an infant (>1 year of age) on their back or abdomen.
When obtaining (acquiring) a rectal temperature (T) never: let go of the thermometer.
When obtaining (acquiring) a rectal temperature (T): always respect the client's privacy by keeping the client covered and pulling the curtains closed and closing the door.
Biohazard means: the possibility of containing (having) disease creating microorganisms (microbes) called pathogens.
After the rectal temperature is obtained, the thermometer sheath and examination (exam) gloves should be immediately discarded in a: biohazard bag.
A rectal temperature (T) is contraindicated when the client has: 1. Swollen veins of the anal region called hemorrhoids aka piles.
A rectal temperature (T) is contraindicated when the client has: 2. Had surgery on the rectum.
A rectal temperature (T) is contraindicated when the client has: 3. Loose watery stools called diarrhea.
A rectal temperature (T) is contraindicated when the client has: 4. Cardiac (heart) pathology because the rectal thermometer can stimulate a vasovagal response causing a decreased CO which stands for cardiac output.
AURAL TEMPERATURE An aural (ear) temperature is aka as a: tympanic (eardrum), (tympanic membrane) temperature.
An aural (tympanic) temperature is performed on an infant by: positioning them supine (lying flat on their back) with their head turned for easy access to the ear.
An aural (tympanic) temperature is performed on small children by: positioning them on their parent's lap with their head against the parent's chest for support. Adults can sit or lie flat.
A tympanic thermometer should be held in your right (R) hand when obtaining (acquiring) a temperature in the: right (R) ear.
A tympanic thermometer should be held in your left (L) hand when obtaining (acquiring) a temperature in the: left (L) ear.
When inserting the probe of a tympanic thermometer with your right (R) hand: use your left (L) hand to pull an adult's pinna (cartilaginous projection of an external ear aka an auricle) up and out.
When inserting the probe of a tympanic thermometer, pull an infant's pinna: straight back.
When inserting the probe of a tympanic thermometer, pull a child's pinna: down and back.
Positioning a pinna (auricle) correctly straightens the auditory (ear) canal so the tympanic (aural) thermometer probe: will point directly at the eardrum aka tympanic membrane.
Insert the probe of a tympanic thermometer far enough to: seal the external auditory (ear) canal.
The probe is the part of a tympanic thermometer that: touches the client
An aural (tympanic) temperature (T) will display (show) in: one (1) to two (2) seconds.
The aural temperature reading will remain on the display screen until the: probe cover is removed.
The probe cover (protective sleeve aka a sheath) on a tympanic thermometer is removed by: pressing the eject button
If an aural (tympanic) temperature is low or does not appear accurate (correct) you should: change the probe cover and repeat the procedure in the opposite ear for comparison.
An aural (tympanic) temperature (T) is contraindicated (inadvisable) when the client: 1. Complains of otalgia which means ear pain.
An aural (tympanic) temperature (T) is contraindicated (inadvisable) when the client: 2. Exhibits (displays) otorrhea which means flow or discharge from an ear canal.
PULSE Pulse (P) or throbbing of the arteries is caused by the: contractions of the heart.
Pulse (P) is obtained by: palpation which means feeling.
When palpating (feeling) a pulse (P), the HCP should use: the tips of their first two (2) or three (3) fingers.
A pulse should never be palpated with your: thumb.
When a pulse (P) is palpated (felt), the health care provider (HCP) should count the pulse (P) for: thirty (30) seconds.
The number of pulses (P) palpated (felt) in thirty (30) seconds is then: doubled.
An irregular pulse (P) should be counted for: one (1) minute.
A weak pulse (P) is called: thready or feeble.
A strong pulse (P) is called: bounding.
Pulses (arteries) palpated on either side of the Adam's apple are called: carotid pulses.
Carotid pulses (arteries) are usually palpated (felt) during an: emergency.
Pulses (arteries) palpated at the creases of the elbows are called: brachial pulses.
Pulse (P) or throbbing of the arteries is caused by: the contractions of the heart.
Pulses (arteries) palpated (felt) at the lateral (side) aspect (part) of the wrists on the thumb side are called: radial pulses.
Radial pulses (arteries) are the most commonly: palpated (felt) pulses.
Pulses (arteries) palpated (felt) at the medial (middle) aspect (part) of the superior (upper) thighs are called: femoral pulses.
Pulses (arteries) palpated (felt) posterior (behind) to the patella (knee caps) are called: popliteal pulses.
Pulses (arteries) palpated (felt) at the dorsal (top) surface of each foot adjacent (next to) to the extensor tendon of each great (big) toe are called: dorsalis pedis pulses.
Pulses (arteries) palpated (felt) at the medial (middle) aspect (part) of each ankle posterior to (behind) each medial malleolus are called: posterior tibial pulses.
The pulse (P) rate (frequency) is measured as the number of bpm which stands for: beats per minute.
The normal pulse (P) range for adolescents (13-19 years) and adults is: 60-100 beats per minute (bpm).
A slow pulse is called: bradycardia (bradycardic).
A fast (rapid) pulse is called: tachycardia (tachycardic).
An irregular pulse is counted for one (1) minute.
RESPIRATIONS One (1) respiration (R) consists of (contains): one (1) inspiration aka inhalation and one (1) expiration aka exhalation.
Respirations should be counted in such a way that the client is: unaware of the procedure.
Respirations are counted by leaving your fingers on the client's pulse after counting it and watching their: thorax (chest) rise and fall.
Another method of counting respirations is to hold the client's wrist against their thorax (chest) while palpating (feeling) a radial pulse in order to palpate (feel) their: thorax rising and falling.
If you cannot see or palpate (feel) the thorax (chest) rise and fall, ask the client for permission to listen to their heart with a: stethoscope. A stethoscope is an instrument for auscultation which means listening.
Even though you asked permission to auscultate (listen with a stethoscope) the client's heart, you are actually counting their: respirations (R)
Respiratory rate (frequency) is measured as the number of rpm which stands for: respirations per minute.
The normal respiratory range for adolescents (13-19) and adults is: 12-18 respirations per minute (rpm)
Respirations should be counted for thirty (30) seconds.
The number of respirations counted in thirty (30) seconds is then: doubled.
Difficult or painful breathing is called: dyspnea (dyspneic).
Dyspnea is abbreviated SOB which stands for: short of breath.
Slow breathing is called: bradypnea or hypopnea.
Fast (rapid) breathing is called: tachypnea or hyperpnea.
No breathing is called: apnea (apneic)
Easier breathing in an upright (straight) position is called: orthopnea (orthopneic).
The part of a stethoscope most commonly used for auscultation (listening) is called the: diaphragm.
The opposite side of a stethoscope diaphragm is called the: bell.
The tips of the stethoscope earpieces should face: forward.
The earpieces of a stethoscope should fit snugly but should not cause: pain.
The stethoscope earpieces and diaphragm should be cleaned before and after every use with: 70% isopropyl alcohol aka rubbing alcohol.
A stethoscope is an instrument for auscultation which means: listening.
The longer stethoscopes work well and are easily stored around your neck so you can look: cool.
APICAL PULSE: An apical pulse (AP) is obtained by placing a stethoscope diaphragm just inferior (below) to the: left (L) mammary papilla aka a nipple.
An apical pulse (AP) is obtained (acquired), (gotten) by: auscultation (listening with a stethoscope).
It is easier to count the apical pulse (AP) of an infant because their pulse (P) rate (frequency) is so: rapid (fast).
An infant is a child: <(less than) one (1) year old.
Eavh "lubb-dupp" of an apical pulse (AP) is counted as: one (1) heartbeat.
An apical pulse (AP) higher that other pulse sites is called a: pulse deficit.
BLOOD PRESSURE Blood pressure (B) is the force exerted (applied or put) on the walls of the: arteries.
Hypertension (HTN) means HBP which stands for: high blood pressure (HBP)
Hypotension means LBP which stands for: low blood pressure.
Blood pressure is documented (recorded) as a fraction, e.g. 120/80
Pressure exerted (applied) on the arterial walls during cardiac contraction is called: systole (systolic).
The top number of a blood pressure (BP) is abbreviated SBP which stands for: systolic blood pressure.
Pressure exerted (applied) on the arterial walls during cardiac relaxation is called: diastole (diastolic).
The bottom number of a blood pressure (BP) is abbreviated DBP which stands for: diastolic blood pressure.
Blood pressure (BP) is measured in mmHg which stands for: millimeters of mercury (Hg).
Blood pressure is measured on an instrument called a: sphygmomanometer aka "sphygmo".
Types of sphygmomanometer include: mercurial and aneroid sphygmomanometers.
Each line on a sphygmomanometer gauge represents: two (2) millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
The normal systolic blood pressure (SBP) range for adults is: <120 mmHg.
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120-139 mmHg for adults is called: prehypertension.
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the force exerted (applied) on the arterial walls during: cardiac contraction.
Frame 142 of 217
Created by: bterrelonge