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NUTRITION

Introduction to Health Occupations

QuestionAnswer
NUTRITION: All body processes (operations) relating to digestion, absorption, and elimination are called: nutrition.
Digestion means: breakdown of food.
Absorption means: movement of digested food into the cardiovascular system.
Elimination means: discharge of substances that cannot be absorbed.
Nutrition has a direct impact on: your health.
Good nutrition will extend: longevity (life)
Good nutrition decreases the chance of: disease.
A reputable (trustworthy) nutrition information source is the USDA which stands for: United States Department of Agriculture.
The number one (1) leading cause of annual (yearly) mortality (death) in the United States is abbreviated CVD which stands for: cardiovascular disease.
Cardiovascular means: heart and blood vessels.
The second (2nd) leading cause of annual (yearly) mortality (death) in the United States is abbreviated CA which stands for: cancer.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer (CA) are directly related to: nutrition.
The primary problem with the typical (average) American diet is an excessive consumption of: 1. Fat. 2. Sugar. 3. Salt especially sodium (Na).
Consuming (eating) excessive fat and sugar can cause an abnormal condition of arterial hardening caused by fatty plaque called: atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis causes arterial stenosis which means: narrowing.
Atherosclerosis means abnormal condition of arterial hardening caused by: fatty plaque.
A major risk factor for atherosclerosis is: Mean with a waist size >(greater than) 35 inches.
Atherosclerosis can lead to a coronary artery occlusion (obstruction) abbreviated MI which stands for: myocardial infarction aka "heart attack".
Atherosclerosis can lead to a cerebral artery occlusion (obstruction) abbreviated CVA which stands for: cerebrovascular accident aka "stroke".
Nutritional choices to reduce atherosclerotic risk include: 1. Consuming at least 25 grams of fiber daily.
Rich sources of fiber are found in: a. fruits. b. Vegetables. c. Whole grains.
Nutritional choices to reduce atherosclerotic risk include: 2. Consuming omega-3 fatty acids at least twice a week.
Rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids include: a. Flax seeds and flax seed oil. b. Walnuts. c. Salmon, tuna and sardines. d. Soy beans.
Nutritional choices to reduce atherosclerotic risk include: 3. Consuming 400 mcg (micrograms) of folate (folic acid) daily.
Folic acid (folate) can also reduce the risk of CA which stands for: cancer.
Rich sources of folate (folic acid) include: a. Spinach. b. Asparagus. c. Legumes which are beans and peas.
Nutritional choices to reduce atherosclerotic risk include: 4. Consuming 20 mg (milligrams) of Vitamin E daily.
Rich sources of Vitamin E include: a. Sunflower seeds and sunflower oil. b. Almonds. c. Spinach.
Nutritional choices to reduce atherosclerotic risk include: 5. Drinking 3 cups (24oz) of tea (without sugar) daily.
FATS: A major risk for atherosclerosis is the consumption of fats that are: saturated.
Saturated fats are solid at: room temperature.
Saturated fats include: 1. Chol which stands for cholesterol.
Saturated fats include: 2. LDL which stands for low density lipoproteins.
Saturated fats include: 3. VLDL which stands for very low density lipoprotein.
Saturated fats include: 4. Trans-fatty acids aka trans-fats.
Saturated fats include: 5. TG which stands for triglycerides.
Rich sources of cholesterol (Chol) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) include: a. Beef and pork.
Rich sources of cholesterol (Chol) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) include: b. Egg yolks.
Rich sources of cholesterol (Chol) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) include: c. Whole milk.
Triglycerides (TG) increase in the bloodstream with the over consumption (eating) of: a. CHO which stands for carbohydraes.
Triglycerides (TG) increase in the bloodstream with the over consumption (eating) of: b. ETOH which stands for alcohol (ethanol)
Triglycerides (TG) increase in the bloodstream with the over consumption (eating) of: c. Refined (processed) sugar.
A healthy daily intake should follow the following guidelines: 1. Total fat intake should not exceed 65 grams per day.
A healthy daily intake should follow the following guidelines: 2. Total saturated fat should not exceed 20 grams per day.
A healthy daily intake should follow the following guidelines: 3. Total cholesterol (Chol) should not exceed 300 mg per day.
Excessive fat in the diet is also associated with cancer (CA) of the: 1. Breast. 2. Colon. 3. Prostate.
HEALTHY FATS: Healthy fats include polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats which are: liquid (Oil) at room temperature.
Polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats reduce: Chol which stands for cholesterol.
Rich sources of polyunsaturated fats include: a. Safflower oil
Rich sources of polyunsaturated fats include: b. Sesame oil.
Rich sources of polyunsaturated fats include: c. Soybean oil
Rich sources of polyunsaturated fats include: d. Corn oil
Rich sources of polyunsaturated fats include: e. Sunflower seed oil
Rich sources of polyunsaturated fats include: f. Nuts.
Rich sources of polyunsaturated fats include: g. Seeds.
Rich sources of monounsaturated fats include: a. Olive oil.
Rich sources of monounsaturated fats include: b. Canola oil
Rich sources of monounsaturated fats include: c. Peanut oil.
Rich sources of monounsaturated fats include: d. Avocados.
Too much of a good thing is sometimes a bad thing because consuming excessive polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats can lead to: weight (WT) gain.
Foods with antioxidants are a prophylaxis (prevention), (protection) for CA which stands for: cancer.
Foods rich in antioxidants include: vegetables and fruits.`
Vegetables and fruits with the highest antioxidant (anticancer) activity include: Red: watermelon, red grapes, strawberries, cranberries, tomatoes, apples, beets.
Vegetables and fruits with the highest antioxidant (anticancer) activity include: Orange/Yellow: carrots, sweet potatoes, oranges, tangerines, lemons, apricots, cantaloupe, butternut squash.
Vegetables and fruits with the highest antioxidant (anticancer) activity include: Green: spinach, kale, collard greens, dark lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, artichokes, brussels sprouts.
Vegetables and fruits with the highest antioxidant (anticancer) activity include: Blue/Purple: purple cabbage, eggplant, raisins, figs, blackberries, blueberries, purple grapes, plums, prunes.
Excess sodium (Na) intake can cause: 1. HTN which stands for hypertension.
Excess sodium (Na) intake can cause: 2. MI which stands for myocardial infarction.
Excess sodium (Na) intake can cause: 3. CHF which stands for congestive heart failure.
Excess sodium (Na) intake can cause: 4. CVA which stands for cerebral vascular accident.
Excess sodium (Na) intake can cause: 5. RF which stands for renal failure.
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends the daily consumption of sodium (Na) be no more than: 1500 mg.
Foods high (heavy) in sodium (Na) are usually processed (changed) (preserved) which means they are packaged in a 1. Box
Foods high (heavy) in sodium (Na) are usually processed (changed) (preserved) which means they are packaged in a 2. Bag
Foods high (heavy) in sodium (Na) are usually processed (changed) (preserved) which means they are packaged in a 3. Can.
HEALTHIER FOOD CHOICES: Healthier food choices include: 1. Switching from whole milk to reduced fat (2%) to low fat (1%) to skim milk (non-fat).
Healthier food choices include: 2. Using reduced fat cheeses such as part skim ricotta or reduced fat mozzarella or reduced fat Swiss or reduced fat provolone.
Healthier food choices include: 3. using low fat yogurt or low fat sour cream instead of regular sour cream.
Healthier food choices include: 4. Using evaporated non-fat milk instead of cream.
Healthier food choices include: 5. Preparing pasta with tomato sauce instead of cream sauce or cheese sauce.
Healthier food choices include: 6. Using low fat frozen yogurt instead of ice cream.
Healthier food choices include: 7. Using half the butter, margarine or oil called for in a recipe.
Healthier food choices include: 8. Selecting the whipped types of butter, margarine or cream cheese in order to use less.
Healthier food choices include: 9. Substituting apple sauce for butter when baking.
Healthier food choices include: 10. Using non-fat butter sprays instead of butter or margarine.
Healthier food choices include: 11. Using fruit butters or jellies on bread instead of butter or margarine.
Healthier food choices include: 12. Using non-fat yogurt or fat free salad dressing on vegetables instead of sour cream or cheese or mayonnaise.
Healthier food choices include: 13. Using spicy mustard or non-fat salad dressing or lemon juice or non-fat yogurt or flavored vinegar or salsa instead of mayonnaise or regular salad dressing or sour cream.
Healthier food choices include: 14. Adding a little water to thick salad dressing to dilute the amount of each serving provides.
Healthier food choices include: 15. Using egg substitutes in recipes instead of whole eggs or use two egg whites in place of each whole egg.
Healthier food choices include: 16. Having a meatless meal once or twice daily.
Healthier food choices include: 17. Making meatless spaghetti sauces and casseroles.
Healthier food choices include: 18. Buying frozen vegetables without sauce.
Healthier food choices include: 19.Enjoying the natural flavor of vegetables by steaming them.
Healthier food choices include: 20. Consuming at least two (2) vegetables (in addition to salad) with dinner.
Healthier food choices include: 21. Consuming more legumes which are beans and peas.
Healthier food choices include: 22. Snacking on raw vegetables or fruits instead of snack chips.
Healthier food choices include: 23. Selecting breads, cereals and crackers that are lower in fat such as bagels instead of croissants.
Healthier food choices include: 24. Using non-stick pans, non-stick spray (PAM) or coat pans lightly with canola oil.
Healthier food choices include: 25. Creating main dishes and casseroles by combining a little meat, fish or poultry with a lot of pasta, rice or vegetables.
Healthier food choices include: 26. Rinsing oil packed items with hot water to remove much of the fat.
Healthier food choices include: 27. Selecting tuna, sardines and other canned meats packed in water.
Healthier food choices include: 28. Grilling, roasting, broiling, baking, stir-frying or stewing instead of frying.
Healthier food choices include: 29. Filling kabob skewers with lots of vegetables and slivers of meat.
Healthier food choices include: 30. Selecting fish, poultry or lean cuts of pork and beef. Lean means lower fat.
Healthier food choices include: 31. Selected unmarbled cuts of beef such as sirloin, round steak or ground round.
Healthier food choices include: 32. Removing the skin from poultry.
Healthier food choices include: 33. Trimming the fat from beef and pork.
Healthier food choices include: 34. Using skinless ground turkey instead of ground beef.
Healthier food choices include: 35. Browning meats without adding fat and drain the fat.
Healthier food choices include: 36. Using defatted broth recipes instead of pan drippings.
FOODS HIGH IN FAT CONTENT: Butter, potato chips, biscuits, bacon, margarine, potato salad, French fries, cornbread, macaroni salad, mayonnaise, fried wontons, doughnuts, coleslaw, salad dressing, fried fish, sweet rolls, bacon, nuts, pie crusts, cookies, sausage, cheese.
Foods high in fat content: Pastries, cakes crackers, olives.
GUIDELINES FOR WEIGHT CONTROL: Most body fat comes from: dietary fat and processed sugar.
One (1) pound of body fat equals: approximately 3500 calories (kcal).
To lose one (1) pound, a decrease of 3500 calories (kcal) is required either by: consuming 3500 fewer calories or using 3500 calories through increased exercise.
A reduction of 250 calories every 2 days will cause the average person to lose: 1 lb every 2 weeks.
To lose weight and keep it off, it is recommended that a person lose no more than one pound every: 2 weeks.
If weight is lost at a slower rate a healthier lifestyle has a better chance of becoming a: habit.
To maintain weight a person must consume: 15 calories per pound each day.
Example: To maintain a weight of 120 lbs a person would need to consume: 1800 calories/day (15 x 120).
One (1)gram of fat has: nine (9) calories (kcal).
One (1) gram of carbohydrate has: four (4) calories.
One (1) gram of protein has: four (4) calories.
Healthy nutrition on a daily 2000 calorie intake includes: a. Two (2) to three (3) cups of vegetables.
Healthy nutrition on a daily 2000 calorie intake includes: b. One (10 to two (2) cups of fruit.
One (1) cup equals: 8 ounces (oz).
Healthy nutrition on a daily 2000 calorie intake includes: c. Six (6) to eight (8) ozs of grain.
Healthy nutrition on a daily 2000 calorie intake includes: d. Three (3) cups of milk.
Healthy nutrition on a daily 2000 calorie intake includes: e. 5.5 ozs of beans or meat.
Healthy nutrition on a daily 2000 calorie intake includes: f. 25 grams of fiber.
NUTRITION: Carbohydrates (CHO) are necessary for: body heat and energy.
Carbohydrates (CHO) should provide more than: half (55-60%) of the body's energy requirements.
The normal average adult intake of CHO on a 2000 calorie diet is: 275 grams to 300 grams per day.
The majority of carbohydrates eaten should be: complex carbohydrates.
Complex carbohydrates primarily consist of: polysaccharides aka starches and fibers.
The richest source for starch is: grain.
Grains include: 1. Wheat. Whole grain flour can provide satiety (satisfaction) quicker and longer than white flour.
Grains include: 2. Rice.
Grains include: 3. Corn.
Grains include: 4. Oats. Consuming oats can reduce the amount of circulating fat in the blood.
Grains include: 5. Legumes which are beans and peas.
Grains include: 6. Tubers which are potatoes and yams.
Foods rich in complex carbohydrates tend to be low in: fat.
Complex carbohydrates also provide satiety which means: satisfaction
The most desirable way to raise your blood sugar (BS) is slow absorption by eating: complex carbohydrates and eating slower.
Healthy nutrition on a daily 2000 calorie intake includes: two (2) to three (3) cups of vegetables.
Healthy nutrition on a daily 2000 calorie intake includes: one (1) to two (2) cups of fruit.
REFINED (EMPTY) SUGARS Processed (refined) sugars are empty calories because they provide energy but lack: protein and vitamins and minerals.
Refined (empty) sugars include: 1. The most popular sweetener in America called white sugar.
Refined (empty) sugars include: 2. A thick, dark brown syrup obtained from raw sugar called molasses.
Refined (empty) sugars include: 3. A combination of white sugar and molasses called brown sugar.
Refined (empty) sugars include: 4. HFCS which stands for high fructose corn syrup.
Refined (empty) sugars include: 5. A sweet, sticky, yellowish-brown fluid made by bees and other insects from nectar collected from flowers called honey.
Refined (empty) sugars include: 6. A sweet liquid made by boiling the sap of the sugar maple tree called maple syrup.
Refined (empty) sugars should only account for: 100 calories per day for women and 150 calories per day for men.
Refined (empty) sugars increase blood levels of TG which stands for: triglycerides.
Refined (empty) sugars decrease blood levels of HDL which stand for: high density lipoprotein aka good cholesterol.
Excessive consumption of refined (empty) sugars increases the risk of: 1. DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
Excessive consumption of refined (empty) sugars increases the risk of: 2. HTN which stands for hypertension.
Excessive consumption of refined (empty) sugars increases the risk of: 3. CA which stands for cancer.
The largest source of calories in an average American child's diet is: soda and/or fruit drinks.
Empty (refined) sugars are found in popular foods such as: 1 medium apple = 80 calories and 0g of fat.
Processed (empty) sugars promote the most common chronic childhood disease which is: tooth decay.
Artificial sweeteners should be used whenever possible instead of: processed sugars aka empty sugars.
CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D. Healthy nutrition on a daily 2000 calorie intake includes: 3-4 cups of Vitamin D fortified milk (or equivalent)
Vitamin D is required to absorb Ca which stands for: calcium.
Absorption means: movement of digested food into the cardiovascular system.
A Purdue University study found that women who consumed 3-4 servings of low fat dairy (milk products) daily experienced an increase in fat metabolism and lost an average of: ten 910) pounds in a year without dieting.
Dairy contains an amino acid that stimulates (causes) muscle formation when we sleep called: leucine.
Leucine causes the body to burn more: calories.
Dairy can decrease the absorption of: iron (Fe) supplements.
Probiotics such as lactobacillus or bifidobacteria found in yogurt: promote a healthy balance in your digestive system.
Created by: bterrelonge