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Prax 0014 physic sci

Praxis II test 0014 science - physical science

physical science components structures and properties of objects, materials and matters; motion and force; light, heat, electricity, magnetism; energy (transfer, consumption, production)
atom something so small it can no longer be divided. it is the basis of chemistry and makes up all matter
nucleus protons and neutrons and seven shells (orbiting electrons); has a positive charge, the center of an atom, contains neutrons and protons
neutrons no charge; located in the nucleus, symbol is 'n'
protons positive charge; located in the nucleus; symbolized by 'p'
electrons negatively charged; located in the shells that orbit an atom's nucleus; symbol is 'e'
atomic number the number of electrons
atomic mass figured based on the total number of protons and neutrons
element matter than cannot be separated into different kinds of matter
compound the chemical bonding of two or more elements
SiO2 sand or glass
NaCHO3 baking soda
NaCL table salt
CO carbon monoxide
Gas has week molecular forces with no shape or color, or volume and can expand infinitely
liquid takes on the shape of the container that holds it and has definite volume with molecular forces weaker than a solid
solid has defined and definite volume with strong molecular forces and holds a shape
solid to liquid or liquid to gas decrease pressure and increase energy
condensation changes gas to liquid
sublimation changes from solid to gas skipping liquid
deposition changes from gas to solid skipping liquid
energy necessary to do work; cannot be created or desproyed; defined by seperating into seven categories which relate to the forms of physical science: heat, sound, light, magnetism, mechanical, electric, chemical, nuclear
work (w) when an object is moved through a distance in response to some force; energy is transferred from one object to another w=fd
power the rate of doing work
potential energy the energy that could do work if released; a ball resting at the top of a steep hill
kinetic energy energy that is doing work or is occurring. ex. a ball rolling down a steep hill
Law of conservation of matter states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed. E=mc^2
Law of conservation of matter and energy states the sum of matter and energy in the universe remains the same
heat energy and states of matter the motion of particles within a substance cause heat; all objects are made up of atoms and/or molecules that are in a constant state of motion; the cooler an object is, the slower the motion of particles; the hotter the faster
melting when a solid reaches a point at which its particles move so rapidly that they escape their boundaries and begin moving more freely
vaporization/evaporation when particles in a liquid are headed to such a temperature as to make them uncontainable within liquid boundaries
diffusion the movement of particles from a high concentration to an area of low concentration. in a system, diffusion occurs until the concentrations in all areas is the same. called a state of equilibrium
gravity acceleration of objects toward the center of the earth
inertia the state of an object remaining at rest or in motion
friction the force between any two objects that come into contact with one another. cannot be eliminated
matter can not be created or destroyed can be converted into another form without losing its mass
heat can be produced in many ways, all of which cause an increase in the motion of particles of a substance
types of heat movement follow: conduction, convection, radiation
conduction heat moves from warmer to cooler areas along materials that conduct heat (wire and rod)
convection heat is transferred through collisions of molecules and occurs only in liquids and gases as they circulate
radiation heat is transmitted in the form of infrared radiation and occurs only in gases and empty space
sound controlled by vibrations;speed depends upon space btwn molecules.travels quickest through solids slowest through gas; more rapic vibration=higher pitch; travels through solids liquids and gas; objects produce it by causing a series of compressions&waves
wave a longitudinal movement in which the compressions and rare fractions travel spherically outward from the source
wavelength the distance between two succssive compressions or two successive rare fractions (waves)
pitch how high or low the sound is; rate of vibration
amplitude loudness/volume; caused by force used to create the sound (greater force=louder sound)
quality a distinctive timbre; caused by source of the sound
light travels through anything transparent or translucent. 4 rules: travels in rays (straight lines), denser the object/medium slower travel; travels in transverse ways; an electromagnetic wave created by causing the electrons to move rapidly and emit energy
transverse wave has a series of crests and troughs; like dropping a pebble into still water
wavelength distance between the crest or troughs
reflection caused by light rays bouncing off a surface
refraction caused by the bending of light rays as they passed from one medium to another
magnetism involves magnets which has two poles N and S; rules: similar poles repel, opposites attract
electric energy can be found in different forms; kinds of energy that can produce light, heat, motion and magnetic force. flows through a conductor as current. like charges repel, opposite attract
electric current contains an electrical energy and a conductor
conductor a material that allows electric current to flow through it (ex. copper, gold, aluminum, silver
insulators material that does not allow electric current to flow through it (wood, rubber, plastic)
voltage amount of force of he current
amperage amount of electricity that flows through a conductor
resistance causes electron flow to do the work and decreases flow of amerage in a circuit
circuit the path that an electric current flows. 2 types: series and parallel
series the resistances are connected to one another, one following another. if one resistance is disconnected, the circuit fails to work
parallel each resistance is connected to the main circuit with its own connection. if one is disconnected the others still work
static electricity a result of the accumulation of electric charges
mechanical energy relates to that action or power created by use of machines
simple machine a tool with few or no moving parts that does work. six types: lever, wedge, incline plane, pulley, wheel&axel, screw
lever magnifies force, increases speed or changers directions and is used to lift things. 3 types/classes/levels
1st class lever fulcrum is in the middle or between the effort and the load (seesaw)
2nd class lever folcrum is at one end so the load is in between the fulcrum and the effort. ex. stapler, wheelbarror
3rd class lever fulcrum is at the end and the effort is between the fulcrum and the lad. ex. tweezers, fishing rod
wedge magnifies force, used to push things apart, or secure things together
incline plane magnifies force and distance increases. is used to help move things up and down, and reducdes the force needed
pulley reduces force needed to move an object, but increases the distance. is a wheel and a rope that moves things up and down, and changes the direction of force
wheel and axel increases speed, facilitates motion and movement of objects
screw magnifies force by increasing distance
law of simple machines the force put into the machine (effor force) times the distance the effor moves squals the output force from the machine(resistance( times the distance the resistance moves
chemical energy the result of the materials found on earth interacting with another materials. materials are elements, compounds or mistures.
element a simple form of matter and everything in the universe is made up of some sort of it; 92 found naturally and 21 are manmade(all radioactive)
compound the result of the chemical reaction of two or more elements
mixture when two or more elements combine without a chemical reaction
nuclear energy the nucleus of the atom forms a different kid of element producing increased energy. this change of disintegration of the nucleus represents the half life of the substance
radioactivity a form of nuclear energy that can be used in the field of medicne, creating electricty, or powering generators
2 kinds of nuclear reactions fission and fusion
fission when the nuclei of atoms are disintegrated(for ex nuclear reactors or atomic bomb)
fusion when two or more nuclei are smashed together with increased froce to form a different kind of nucleus (ex. the sun or a hydrogen bomb)
Created by: allie424