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Prax 0014 life sci

Praxis II test 0014 science - life science

life science studies living things and their characteristics. encompasses both plans and animals, the structure of the cell, reproduction and propagation of the species, physical structure, behavior within environments, adaptations and interdependence of a species
5 kingdoms monera, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
monera single-celled organisms without nuclei (bacteria)
protista single-celled organisms with nuclei (algae, protozoans)
fungi single-celled and multi-celled organisms (mushrooms, mold, yeast, lichen)
plantae multi-cellular plant organisms (moss, fern, pine, flowering)
animalia multi-cellular animals (10-21 phyla)
7 categories of classification kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species (Kids Playing Chicken On Freeways Get Smashed)
phylum contains organisms that are genetically related through common ancestry
class a more specific breakdown of organisms in which the group shares a common attribute, characteristic or trait
orders specifically divides the class into smaller shared characteristics
family splits order into smaller units in which organisms have multiple traits in common
genus breaks down family in which the organisms show many common attibutes
species last break down in which organisms can interbreed and produce offspring that can propagate the species
characteristics of living things made of protoplasm, organized into cells, use energy, capable of growth, have definite life spans, reproduce and give rise to similar organisms, affected by the environment, adapt to the environment, respond to the environment
cell the fundamental unit that composes the structure and function of life. All living things are made up of these
breakdown of a living body (4 things) tissue, organs, system, organism
tissue a group of similiar cells
organs a group of tissues working together
system a group of organs working together
organisms a group of systems
functions of a cell (3) manufacture proteins and other materials for building cells, manufacture energy, to reproduce
cell membrane made of lipids, permits inward passage of needed items/outward passage of waste
nucleus control center of cell, "the brain" that contains DNA
cytoplasm all materials outside of the nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transport canals that travel from the nucleus to cytoplasm
ribosomes manufacture proteins
mitochondria releases energy to the cell through chemical reactions
lysosomes hold enzymes to breakdown molecules
golgi apparatus packages the proteins and transports them through the cell
vacoules store food, water and minerals
cell wall only in plants; made of cellulose, provides rigit structure for plant, permits passage in and out of cell
chloroplasts only in plants; plastids that contain chlorophyll
roots the anchor/absorbs water and minerals
stem the transport/taking nutrients to the leaes
leaves the builder/manufactures food for the plant
flower sexual organs/reproduction site of the plant
fruit the ripened ovaries of flowers
8 basic functions of animals nutrition (digestive), respiration (respiratory), response (brain and NS), regulation (glands and hormones), excretion (kidneys and other organs), circulation (circulatory), movement (NS and brain), reproduction (sexual and asexual)
asexual a cell that cretes two identical pairs of chromosomes, splits, and forms nuclei around the chromosomes. Cells divide by mitosis. new cells are created using only one "parent" ex. algae, bacteria, sponges, mold, fungi
sexual requires the union of a male &female gamete (reproductive cell) Meiosis is when the gametes form Each gamete has .5 chrom needed each gamete donates .5 of the chroms to the new nucleus. when combined, the egg is fertilized with a full chromosome count
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid - carries the code of protein production, which is the code of life
chromosomes made of genes that are comprised of strands of DNA. come in pairs with a gene for each trait on each part of the pair and traits can be dominant or recessive.
DD dominate trait appears in organism
DR dominant trait appears in organism, but organism carries recessive trait and can pass it on to its young
RR recessive trait appears in organism
examples of D traits brown eyes, curly hair, widow's peak, ability to curl tongue, freckles, unattached earlobes, dimples
examples of R traits blue or green eyes, straight hair, cannot curl tongues, no freckles, attached earlobes, no dimples
biological evolution a scientific process in which inherited traits of organisms change from one generation to the next - two major beliefs - natural selection and adaptations
natural selection producing & passing on traits that are helpful & nec for survival of the org; process of individs w fav traits survive & reproduce shows how organisms become better adaptied to survive env while organisms with less favorable adaptations or traits die out
adaptations large changes that occurs after successive, small, and random changes in traits. Through natural selection, the best traits for the specific environments are kept or propagated forth
survival of the fittest organisms best adapted to an environment will generally produce the most offspring. Offspring that pose the more favorable traits will survive and reproduce ex. polar bears are best suited to the cold region of the world and continue to populate there
ecology the study of interaction of organisms within their environment and with one another
biosphere the environment in which living things exist (land, air, water)
ecosystem the community of living things and the non-living environment. an ecosystem has energy flow and recycling of minerals. they can be large (desert or ocean) or small (pond or backyard)
3 characteristics of a balanced ecosystem 1. constant source of energy (sun-solar energy) 2. energy is converted to glucose (needed by all living things). 3. organic nutrients and matter are recycled successfully
food chain the primary way ecosystems transmit and disperse energy
conditions that change an ecosystem's balance supply of energy changes, food cycle interrupted, organic matter and nutrients increase or decrease, natural disasters (floods, eqarthquakes, tornadoes, erosion), natural phenomena (el nino), human contribution (air or water pollution, etc)
life cycle 1. come into being (sometimes a larvae state) 2. grow 3. metamorphosis 4. mature 5. reproduce 6. die
Created by: allie424