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INFECTION CONTROL

Introduction to Health Occupations

QuestionAnswer
INFECTION CONTROL: Forms of life so small that they are invisible to the naked eye are called: microorganisms aka microbes.
Types of microorganisms (microbes) include: 1. Bacteria.
Types of microorganisms (microbes) include: 2. Viruses
Types of microorganisms (microbes) include: 3. Fungi
Microorganisms (microbes) are: forms of life so small that they are invisible to the naked eye.
Disease creating microorganisms (microbes) are called: pathogens.
Infection occurs (happens) when a pathogen (disease creating microbe) proliferates which means: rapidly reproduces.
Each year in the US, an average 700,000 HAIs occur which stand for: healthcare acquired infections.
Environmental factors that accelerate (speed up) proliferation (rapid reproduction) of pathogens (disease creating microbes include: 1. Warmth.
Environmental factors that accelerate (speed up) proliferation (rapid reproduction) of pathogens (disease creating microbes include: 2. Darkness.
Environmental factors that accelerate (speed up) proliferation (rapid reproduction) of pathogens (disease creating microbes include: 3. Moisture.
Environmental factors that accelerate (speed up) proliferation (rapid reproduction) of pathogens (disease creating microbes include: 4. Nourishment also known as food.
Environmental factors that accelerate (speed up) proliferation (rapid reproduction) of pathogens (disease creating microbes include: 5. O2 which stands for oxygen.
Environmental factors that accelerate (speed up) proliferation (rapid reproduction) of pathogens (disease creating microbes include: 6. Optimal (best) pH which is 7.35-7.45
Pathogens (disease creating microbes) have the ability to: 1. Produce toxins which are poisons.
Pathogens (disease creating microbes) have the ability to: 2. Cause a damaging immune response called an allergic reaction.
Pathogens (disease creating microbes) have the ability to: 3. Destroy basic units of life called cells.
Objects (things) that contain (carry) pathogens are called: contaminated or dirty.
Objects (things) that do not contain (carry) pathogens are called: clean.
The process of carefully cleaning to prevent contamination is called: sanitization (sanitize)
Contamination means an object (thing) contains (carries) pathogens which are: disease creating microorganisms (microbes).
Inhibiting the proliferation of pathogens is called: antisepsis (antiseptic).
killing pathogens is called: disinfection.
The most popular chlorine released agent (CRA) disinfectant is called: sodium hypochlorite.
Disinfection means: killing pathogens which are disease creating microorganisms (microbes).
Sodium hypochlorite mixed with water (H2O) is called; liquid bleach.
Sodium hypochlorite mixed with water (H2O) is the most popular CRA which stands for: chlorine released agent.
A very effective disinfectant ratio is: (test question) 1 part liquid bleach to 4 parts water (H2O)
Ratio means: amount.
Killing all microorganisms (microbes) is called: sterilization (sterilize).
Sterilization of surgical instruments occurs (happens) with the use of a pressurized steam device called an: autoclave.
Contaminated (dirty) inanimate objects (things) are called: fomites.
Contaminated (dirty) means: an object contains pathogens (disease creating microbes).
Inanimate means: lifeless.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 1. Doorknobs.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 2. Telephones.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 3. Remote controls.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 4. Faucets.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 5. Keyboards.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 6. Light switches.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 7. Pens and pencils.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 8. Money.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 9. Fuel pumps.
Fomites are contaminated inanimate (lifeless) objects (things) that include: 10. Shopping Carts.
Many microorganisms are destroyed by exposure to UV radiation which stands for: ultraviolet (UV) light
CHAIN OF INFECTION: Infection occurs (happens) when a: pathogen proliferates (rapidly reproduces).
The chain of infection refers to six (6) links necessary for an infection to develop and spread called: disease transmission.
Breaking any link in the chain of infection stops the development and: transmission of infection.
Transmission means: spread.
LINKS IN THE CHAIN OF INFECTION: Links in the chain of infection include: 1. A disease creating microorganism (microbe) called a pathogen.
Links in the chain of infection include: 2. An animal, insect or human capable of sustaining (supporting) proliferation (rapid reproductions of a pathogen (disease creating microbe) called a reservoir host.
A reservoir host unaware they have a pathogen and can transmit the pathogen is called a: carrier.
Links in the chain of infection include: 3. The means by which a pathogen leaves the body called the portal of exit.
Portal means: opening.
Respiratory exit portals include the: nose and oral cavity aka the mouth.
Pathogens can exit the respiratory system during: exhalation aka expiration or breathing out.
Pathogens can exit the respiratory system during: tussis aka coughing (cough).
Pathogens can exit the respiratory system during involuntary expulsion of air through the nose and oral cavity called: sneezing.
GI exit (out) portals (openings) include the: oral cavity (mouth) and anus.
GI stands for: gastrointestinal which means stomach and intestines.
Pathogens can exit GI portals during regurgitation of stomach contents called: vomiting or emesis.
Regurgitation is aka: reflux (backflow)
Pathogens can exit GI portals during discharge of feces (stool) called: defecation or BM which stands for bowel movement.
Discharge means: release.
GU exit portals include the: vagina and urethra.
The urethra is the tube that transports urine from the urinary bladder to: the outside world.
Pathogens can exit GU portals during discharge of fluidic waste called: urination or micturition or voiding.
Pathogens can exit GU portals in blood and endometrial (uterine) tissue discharged during: menstruation or menses.
Pathogens can exit GU portals in reproductive liquids called: semen and vaginal secretions.
Integumentary exit portals include a break in the skin called an: open wound (injury).
Portals are: openings.
Links in the chain of infection include: 4. The means (way) by which a pathogen is transferred (spread) from one person to another called the mode of transmission.
Modes of transmission include: a. Exhalation aka breathing out (expiration)
Modes of transmission include: b. Tussis aka coughing (cough)
Transmission means: spread.
Modes of transmission include: c. Involuntary (no control) expulsion of air through the nose and oral cavity (mouth) called sneezing.
Modes of transmission include: d. The most common mode of transmission which is contact aka touching.
The most contaminated (dirty) parts of your body are your: hands.
Links in the chain of infection include: 5. The means (way) by which a pathogen (disease creating microbe) enters (goes in) the body called the portal of entry.
Respiratory entry portals include the: nose and oral cavity aka the mouth.
Pathogens (disease creating microbes) can enter the respiratory system during: inhalation aka inspiration aka breathing in.
GI entery portals include the: oral cavity (mouth) and anus.
GI stands fo: gastrointestinal which means stomach and intestines.
Pathogens can enter GI portals during ingestion which means: eating and/or drinking.
Food and/or water that contains pathogens is called: dirty or contaminated.
Genitourinary entry portals include the: vagina and urethra.
The urethra is the tube (duct) that: transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside world.
Pathogens can enter GU entry portals during intimate activities such as: sexual intercourse aka coitus or copulation.
Integumentary entry (in) portals (openings) include a break in the skin or mucous membranes called an: open wound (injury)
Mucous membranes (linings) are located in the: a. eyelids.
Mucous membranes (linings) are located in the: b. Nose.
Mucous membranes (linings) are located in the: c. Mouth.
Mucous membranes (linings) are located in the: d. Urethra.
Mucous membranes (linings) are located in the: e. Vagina.
Mucous membranes (linings) are located in the: f. Anus
Links in the chain of infection include: 6. One without immunity against a pathogen called a susceptible host.
Susceptibility of a host to allow proliferation (rapid reproduction) of a pathogen will depend on the strength of their: immune system
Susceptibility means: likelihood.
Immune system strength is directly related to: a. Types of food you ingest (eat) called nutrition.
Immune system strength is directly related to: b. How often you are physically active called exercise frequency.
Immune system strength is directly related to: c. Use of tobacco and ETOH which stands for ethanol (alcohol).
Immune system strength is directly related to: d. Unconscious resting patterns called sleep habits.
ASEPSIS: Asepsis means: No infection.
Aseptic technique means: practices and procedures to prevent infection.
The most effective (successful) aseptic technique is: proper hand washing.
Proper hand washing is required when the hands become: visibly contaminated (dirty) and before and after physical contact with a client.
PROPER HAND WASHING: Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 1. Assessing (evaluating) if the towel dispenser is self-dispensing (automatic) or manual (not self-dispensing).
If the towel dispenser is manual you must: dispense the towel first (1st).
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 2. Wetting your hands thoroughly with warm water because warm water creates a better lather and is gentler to the skin.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 3. Applying enough soap to cover all hand surfaces.
The type of soap recommended in a healthcare setting is: antimicrobial.
Antimicrobial means: against forms of life so small that they are invisible to the naked eye.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 4. Vigorously washing palm to palm.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 5. Vigorously (forcefully) washing the (R) palm over the dorsum (back) of the (L) hand with the fingers interlaced (crossed) and vice versa (opposite hand).
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 6. Vigorously washing palm to palm with the fingers interlaced.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 7. Vigorously washing the backs of the right fingers to the left palm with the fingers interlocked (hooked) and vice versa (opposite hand).
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 8. Vigorously washing the right (R) thumb clasped in the left palm and vice versa (opposite thumb).
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 9. Vigorously washing the finger tips and nails of (R) hand in the left (L) palm and vice versa (opposite hand).
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 10. Cleaning the underside of your nails with a brush or orange stick/cuticle stick.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 11. Vigorously washing for a minimum of 20 seconds.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 12. Rinsing your hands thoroughly with the finger tips pointed downward.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 13. Reducing the risk of creating flying droplets by not shaking your hands or flicking your hands.
Shaking or flicking your hands can cause droplets to be thrown into the mucous membranes located in your: eyes and/or nose and/or mouth.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 14. Drying your hands thoroughly.
Drying your hands thoroughly (completely) is important because wet or moist hands transfer more pathogens than: dry hands.
Drying your hands thoroughly is important because wet or moist hands create a better means by which pathogens are transferred (spread) from one person to another called the: mode of transmission.
Drying your hands thoroughly helps prevent skin fissures called: chapping.
Fissures are: cracks.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 15. Turning the water off with a paper towel.
Proper hand washing technique (method) includes: 16. Not disposing (discarding) the paper towel until you determine if the paper towel is needed to open the door.
If time constraints or location prohibit (not allow) proper hand washing you may use an: alcohol based hand sanitizer.
Constraints are: restrictions.
APPLICATION OF A HAND SANITIZER: Proper application (use) of a hand sanitizer includes: 1. Applying a palm full of hand sanitizer in a cupped hand.
Proper application (use) of a hand sanitizer includes: 2. Vigorously (forcefully) rubbing the hand sanitizer palm to palm.
Application means: use.
Proper application (use) of a hand sanitizer includes: 3. Vigorously rubbing the R palm over the dorsum (back) of L hand with interlaced (crossed) fingers and vice versa.
Proper application (use) of a hand sanitizer includes: 4. Vigorously rubbing palm to palm with interlaced fingers.
Proper application (use) of a hand sanitizer includes: 5. Vigorously rubbing the backs of the R fingers to the L palm with interlocked (hooked) fingers and vice versa.
Proper application (use) of a hand sanitizer includes: 6. Vigorously rubbing the R thumb clasped in the L palm and vice versa.
Proper application (use) of a hand sanitizer includes: 7. Vigorously rubbing the finger tips and nails of R hand in the L palm and vice versa.
Hand sanitizer should be rubbed vigorously for a minimum of: twenty (20) seconds.
Once dry your hands are sanitized aka; clean.
ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE: Aseptic technique means practices and procedures to: prevent infection.
Aseptic technique includes: 1. Applications of hand lotion after proper hand washing to prevent skin fissures (cracks) called chapping.
A personal bottle of fragrance free hand lotion is recommended to reduce the risk of: allergic reactions.
A personal bottle of water based hand lotion is recommended because oil based hand lotion can cause latex to: degrade (deteriorate)
Aseptic technique includes: 2. Wearing your hair pinned up.
Aseptic technique includes: 3. Fingernail length no longer than 1/4 inch and no artificial nails and only clear nail polish.
Aseptic technique includes: 4. Not wearing rings.
Special rings should be worn on a: chain or pinned to your clothing.
Aseptic technique includes: 5. Not wearing jewelry.
Aseptic technique means: Practices and procedures to prevent infection.
Aseptic technique includes: 6. Not touching your face or mouth.
Aseptic technique includes: 7. Not leaning against sinks, supplies or equipment.
Aseptic technique includes: 8. Use of your own pen or pencil.
Aseptic technique includes: 9. Covering a cough or sneeze with tissues or use the vampire (sleeve) maneuver.
Aseptic technique includes: 10. Disposing of (discarding) tissues immediately after use and then immediately washing your hands properly.
Aseptic technique includes: 11. Posting a sign asking clients to use provided tissues for coughs and sneezes.
Aseptic technique includes: 12. Holding all linen away from the body.
Aseptic techniques include: 13. Considering clean linen that is dropped contaminated (dirty).
Aseptic techniques include: 14. Unfolding clean linen instead of shaking it open.
Aseptic techniques include: 15. Avoiding direct contact with clients and staff when you have signs (Sx) and symptoms (SX) of influenza (flu) or coryza aka the common cold.
Aseptic techniques include 16. Protecting yourself and clients from airborne pathogens such as influenza (flu), coryza (common cold), and tuberculosis (TB) by wearing a N-95 mask or HEPA mask or P100 mask.
INFLUENZA (flu) After signs (Sx) and symptoms (SX) of influenza appear, the flu can be transmitted: for seven (7) days.
Transmitted means: spread.
Signs and symptoms of influenza include: 1. Fatigue which means loss of energy.
Signs and symptoms of influenza include: 2. Chills and pyrexia which means fever.
Signs and symptoms of influenza include: 3. Tussis (cough) and/or pharyngitis which means inflammation of the throat.
Signs and symptoms of influenza include: 4. Nasal congestion (stuffiness) and rhinorrhea which means nasal discharge (flow)
Signs and symptoms of influenza include: 5. Myalgia which means muscle pain.
Signs and symptoms of influenza include: 6. Cephalgia which means headache (HA).
Signs and symptoms of influenza include: 7. Loose watery stools called diarrhea.
Signs and symptoms of influenza include: 8. N + V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that you stay home and avoid contact with others for at least 24 hours after: your pyrexia discontinues without the use of antipyretic medications.
Antipyretic medications are: fever reducers.
Since influenza (flu) and coryza (common cold) are transmitted (spread) primarily by the respiratory system, direct contact with clients and staff requires the use of a: mask and washing your hands properly before and after physical contact with a client.
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS: Bloodborne pathogens include: HIV which stands for the human immunodeficiency virus.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can cause: AIDS which stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs (happens) when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a person infected to become: immunocompromised which means weakened immune system.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fragile virus and can survive only seconds to minutes: outside the body.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): will die immediately if exposed to sunlight or dry environment.
The average "window period" for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is: three (3) to twelve (12) weeks.
The "window period" is the time between exposure (contact) with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and: detection (discovery) with a blood test.
Blood tests to detect (discover) the human immunodeficiency virus (HI) include: 1. ELISA
Blood tests to detect (discover) the human immunodeficiency virus (HI) include: 2. Western blot.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing must be corroborated which means: verified (double checked).
If a client is diagnosed as "HIV positive" the health care provider (HCP) must report the diagnosis to the: health department.
The health department will remove all personal client information and send the test results t the CDC which stands for: Centers for Disease Control (www.cdc.gov).
A person infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can transmit (spread) the virus to others during the: "window period".
The average "window period" for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is: three (3) to twelve (12) weeks.
The average "incubation period" for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is: 2-10 years.
The incubation period is the time between acquiring (getting) the HIV and the development of AIDS which stands for: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Diagnosis (Dx) of AIDS occurs when: 1. A blood test reveals (shows) a CD4 T lymphocyte count below 200 mm3.
Diagnosis (Dx) of AIDS occurs when: 2. Microorganisms begin taking advantage of the weakened immune system causing OI which stands for opportunistic infecctions.
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: a. Viral and bacterial pulmonary (lung) infections causing inflammation of a/the lungs called pneumonia and TB which stands for tuberculosis.
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: b. Candidiasis which means fungal infection of the oral cavity (thrush), trachea (windpipe), lungs, esophagus, integument (skin) and vagina (yeast infection).
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: c. Herpetic stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth) caused by HSV1 which stands for herpes simplex virus 1 aka cold sores (fever blisters).
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: d. Cervical (uterine) and lymphatic malignancies which are cancers that spread.
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: e. A skin malignancy abbreviated KS which stands for Kaposi's sarcoma.
Treatment (Tx) for the HIV + AIDS includes: antiviral medications to reduce the virus' ability to proliferate which means rapidly reproduce.
Antiviral medications to treat the HIV and AIDS are called: highly active antiretroviral therapy abbreviated HAART.
HAART (anti-HIV/AIDS) medications are commonly given in combination called an: "AIDS cocktail".
HAART (anti-HIV/AIDS medications: must be taken faithfully every day to prevent the HIV from developing a resistance (defense) to the medications.
Bloodborne pathogens include: 1. HBV which stands for the hepatitis B virus.
Bloodborne pathogens include: 2. HCV which stands for the hepatitis C virus.
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause: degeneration of the liver called cirrhosis.
Degeneration means: loss of function aka deterioration.
Cirrhosis (liver degeneration) can be exacerbated (worsened) by consuming: a. Alcohol aka ethanol.
Cirrhosis (liver degeneration) can be exacerbated (worsened) by consuming: b. OTC medications such as Motrin (ibuprofen) and/or Tylenol (acetaminophen).
The HIV and HBV and HCV can be destroyed by using a solution of: 1 part bleach to 4 parts water.
Blood-borne pathogens such as the HIV, HBV, and HCV can be found in: human body fluids except perspiration and tears.
The most common way to transmit (spread) the HIV and/or HBV and/or HCV is through: sexual contact.
The sexual partner at greater risk of contracting (catching) the HIV and/or HBV and/or HCV is the: receptive partner.
HIV and/or HBV and/or HCV can be transmitted (spread) by sharing: injectable drug equipment and/or razors and/or toothbrushes.
HIV and/or HBV and/or HCV can be transmitted (spread) by contaminated (dirty): acupuncture needles and/or nail files and/or body piercing needles and/or tattoo needles.
HIV and/or HBV and/or HCV can be transmitted (spread) in clotting factors used to treat the coagulopathy (clotting disease) called: hemophilia.
Adolescents (ages 13-19) are at higher risk of contracting the HIV and/or HBV and/or HCV due to poor education about: safer sex techniques.
Adolescents are at higher risk of contracting the HIV and/or HBV and/or HCV because they use unprotected oral and anal sexual techniques more often to reduce: pregnancy risk.
People over age 50 are more at risk of contracting (catching) the HIV and or HBV and/or HCV because of the false perception that this disease affects only: younger people and/or drug addicts and/or homosexuals.
HIV and or HBV and/or HCV cannot be transmitted (spread) by: Shaking hands, blood sucking insects such as mosquitos, French kissing, sitting on a toilet, donating blood or using a telephone. Mosquitos Fre
HIV and or HBV and/or HCV cannot be transmitted (spread) by: A dog bite, swimming in a public pool, eating in a restaurant, someone crying on you, riding on a bus, train or plane, someone coughing or sneezing on you.
HIV and or HBV and/or HCV cannot be transmitted by: Sharing clothes or using a hot tub.
HIV and or HBV and/or HCV sexual transmission (spread) is reduced by: 1. No sexual contact with another called abstinence (no risk).
HIV and or HBV and/or HCV sexual transmission (spread) is reduced by: 2. Mutually exclusive sexual contact with an uninfected person called monogamy (no risk)>.
HIV and or HBV and/or HCV sexual transmission (spread) is reduced by: 3. Self stimulation called masturbation (no risk).
HIV and or HBV and/or HCV sexual transmission (spread) is reduced by: 4. Barriers that include male and female condoms (slight risk).
CONDOMS: Condom failure is usually caused by: human error.
Condom failure can be reduced by checking the condom's: expiration date.
Condom failure can be reduced by using condoms made of: latex or polyurethane.
Do not use condoms labeled: "natural skin" or "lambskin".
Condom failure can occur (happen) by opening the package with: scissors or teeth or artificial (acrylic) nails.
Condom failure can occur if they are stored in a warm or hot environment such as: glove compartment or wallet.
Condom failure can be reduced by correct placement of the condom before any: sexual contact.
Condom failure ca be reduced if a male condom is placed by: rolling the condom over an erect penis.
Condom failure can be reduced with the use of non-oxynol 9: which is a spermicide.
Condom failure can be reduced if the male withdraws immediately after: ejaculationl
Condon failure can be reduced by: not reusing condoms.
Condom failure can be reduced by using water soluble lubricants such as: KY-Jelly.
Petroleum based lubricants such as Vaseline break down a: latex.
LEGAL ISSUES: No HIV and or HBV and/or HCV testing shall be performed without: informed consent from the client.
Informed consent means: the procedure must be explained in a way that the client understands completely.
HIV and or HBV and/or HCV testing without consent can be obtained for: sex crimes such as rape or incest or prostitution.
HIV and or HBV and/or HCV test results are: privileged aka confidential (private).
Penalties for breaching HIV and or HBV and/or HCV test confidentiality include: 1. A fine of up to $25,000.
Penalties for breaching HIV and or HBV and/or HCV test confidentiality include: 2. Loss of license (certification).
Penalties for breaching HIV and or HBV and/or HCV test confidentiality include: 3. Civil liability which means lawsuit.
UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS: Universal precautions are infection control guidelines that treat all human blood and certain human body fluids as if they contain: bloodborne pathogens.
By law, PPE is to be provided free of charge and in your size by your: employer.
PPE stands for: personal protective equipment.
Laws regarding safety and health in the workplace are created and enforced by a federal agency called OSHA which stands for: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (www.osha.gov).
Whenever there is a possibility of your hands touching human body fluids (except perspiration and tears) the health care provider (HCP) must don (put on): examination (exam) gloves.
When donning examination gloves, the HCP should always check for: holes and tears.
Whenever there is a possibility of splashing or spraying of human body fluids (except perspiration and tears), the HCP must don: examination gloves and eye protection and mask and gown.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 1. The red liquid that circulates through arteries and veins called blood.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 2. Mucus discharged (released) from the oral cavity (mouth) called saliva.
PPE stands for: personal protective equipment.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 3. Expectorated phlegm aka sputum. Expectorated means cough up.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 4. Regurgitated stomach contents called emesis or vomit.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 5. Fluids discharged from the male reproductive system called semen.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 6. Fluids discharged from the female reproductive system called vaginal secretions.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 7. Fluid discharged by the kidneys called urine.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 8. Defecated waste called stool or feces or BM which stands for bowel movement.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 9. Fluid discharged (released) during lactation called breast milk.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 10. Fluid discharged when a pregnant woman's "water breaks" called amniotic fluid.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 11. Amniotic fluid aspirated (suctioned) during a surgical procedure of the amnion called amniocentesis.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 12. CSF which stands for cerebrospinal fluid obtained during a LP which stands for lumbar puncture aka spinal tap.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 13. Pleural fluid aspirated during a surgical procedure called pleurocentesis.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 14. Synovial fluid aspirated during a surgical puncture of a joint called arthrocentesis.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 15. Peritoneal fluid aspirated during a surgical procedure of the abdomen called abdominocentesis.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 16. Pericardial fluid aspirated (suctioned) during a surgical procedure of the pericardium (sac surrounding the heart) called pericardiocentesis.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 17. Any fluid containing blood.
Body fluids that require PPE include: 18. Any fluid that is unidentifiable.
When removing your PPE, examination (exam) gloves should be removed: first (1st).
Examination gloves are removed by only touching the outside of the first glove removed and only touching the inside of the second glove removed and turning the gloves: inside out as you remove them.
After removal, examination gloves must be immediately discarded (disposed of) in a: biohazard (medical waste) bag.
Biohazard (medical waste) means the possibility of containing disease creating (microorganisms) called: pathogens.
Wash your hands immediately after discarding your: examination gloves.
Discarding means: throwing away or disposing of.
When removing your PPE, mask and eye protection should be removed: second (2nd).
When removing your mask and eye protection, only touch the: handles and/or straps.
The mask and eye protection must be immediately discarded (disposed of) in a: biohazard (medical waste) bag.
When removing PPE, the gown should be removed: last.
The gown should be removed by: turning it inside out and rolling it into a ball.
Wash your hands immediately after: discarding your gown.
BIOHAZARD (MEDICAL WASTE) BAGS: Biohazard (medical waste) bags are for discarding any non-sharp disposable single-use) items having the potential (ability) of containing human body fluids except: perspiration and tears.
Characteristics (descriptions) of a biohazard bag include: 1. Usually color coded red.
Characteristics (descriptions) of a biohazard bag include: 2. Resistant to leaks (leak resistant).
Characteristics (descriptions) of a biohazard bag include: 3. Ability to be closed (closable).
Characteristics (descriptions) of a biohazard bag include: 4. Labeled as biohazard.
A biohazard (medical waste) bag that is broken open or contaminated on the outside must be: double bagged.
Contaminated means: dirty.
SHARPS CONTAINERS: Sharp containers are for discarding (throwing away) any disposable (single-use) item having the potential (ability) to: cut or puncture.
Characteristics (descriptions) of a sharps container include: 1. Usually color coded red.
Characteristics (descriptions) of a sharps container include: 2. Puncture resistant.
Characteristics (descriptions) of a sharps container include: 3. Leak resistant.
Characteristics (descriptions) of a sharps container include: 4. Closable.
Characteristics (descriptions) of a sharps container include: 5. Labeled as biohazard.
Sharps containers are closed and replaced when: two thirds full.
To prevent accidental contamination, biohazard is stored in a: secured area called the dirty utility room.
Biohazard (medical waste) means the possibility of containing: disease creating microorganisms (microbes) called pathogens
Biohazard is routinely collected by an approved biohazard disposal company to be: incinerated.
Incinerated means: destroy by burning.
MISCELLANEOUS PRECAUTIONS: Never recap contaminated needles because you could easily: puncture your skin.
Contaminated (dirty) needles must be immediately discarded in a: sharps container.
Sharps containers are for discarding (throwing away) any disposable (single-use) item having the potential (ability) to: cut or puncture.
Broken glass must be picked up with a: dust pan and broom or two (2) pieces of cardboard.
The following acts are forbidden (not allowed) in a medical setting: 1. Ingesting aka eating.
The following acts are forbidden (not allowed) in a medical setting: 2. Deglutition of liquids aka drinking.
The following acts are forbidden (not allowed) in a medical setting: 3. Inhaling burnt tobacco aka smoking.
The following acts are forbidden (not allowed) in a medical setting: 4. Application (use of) cosmetics aka makeup.
The following acts are forbidden (not allowed) in a medical setting: 5. Application of oral labia medication aka lip balm.
The following acts are forbidden (not allowed) in a medical setting: 6. Insertio and removal of corneal lenses aka contact lenses.
Eating, drinking, smoking, application of cosmetics and lip balm and insertion and removal of contact lenses are forbidden because these acts involve bringing your hands to your: face.
The face is a concern (worry) because of the mucous membranes(linings) in the: conjunctivae (eyes) and nasal cavities (nose) and oral cavity (mouth).
The HIV and HBV and HCV can enter the body through: mucous membranes (linings)
The HIV and HBV and HCV can enter the body through: non-intact skin called an open wound.
HIV stands for: human immunodeficiency virus.
HBV stands for: herpes B virus
HCV stands for herpes C virus.
If your job description puts you at risk of coming in contact with potentially infectious material, your employer must provide, at no cost to you, the: HBV immunization series (3 injections).
Immunization is aka: vaccination or inoculation.
If body fluids (except perspiration and tears) touch your skin and/or mucous membranes of your eyes, nose, or oral cavity (mouth) you must immediately: 1. Flush thoroughly (completely) with a continuous flow of water called an irrigation.
If body fluids (except perspiration and tears) touch your skin and/or mucous membranes of your eyes, nose, or oral cavity (mouth) you must immediately: 2. Report the incident to your supervisor.
If body fluids (except perspiration and tears) touch your skin and/or mucous membranes of your eyes, nose, or oral cavity (mouth) you must immediately: 3. Complete and submit (deliver) an official written statement of the accident called an incident report.
BIOHAZARD SPILL CLEAN UP: Biohazard spill clean up includes: 1. Blocking off the biohazard spill area until clean up and disinfection are complete.
Biohazard spill clean up includes: 2. Donning eye protection, mask, gown, examination gloves and reusable rubber gloves.
Biohazard spill clean up includes: 3. Wiping up the biohazard spill using paper towels or absorbent material and discarding (disposing of) in a biohazard bag.
Biohazard spill clean up includes: 4. Gently pouring or spraying liquid bleach on the contaminated surface and let remain for twenty (20) seconds.
Liquid bleach is a combination of: sodium hypochlorite and water.
Biohazard spill clean up includes: 5. Wiping up the remaining liquid bleach with paper towels and discarding (disposing of) in a biohazard (medical waste) bag.
Biohazard spill clean up includes: 6. Placing all non-disposable cleaning materials such as reusable gloves, mops, and scrub brushes in liquid bleach and allowing to air dry.
The ratio (amount) of liquid bleach is: 1 part liquid bleach to 4 parts of water.
Biohazard spill clean up includes: 7. Removing your PPE and immediately discarding in a biohazard bag.
Biohazard spill clean up includes: Washing your hands properly.
ISOLATION: Isolation is the separation of individuals who can easily transmit (spread): communicable diseases.
Communicable means: contagious or infectious.
TYPES OF ISOLATION INCLUDE: 1. Separation of individuals known or suspected to be infected with a pathogen transmitted by exhalation (breathing out) calld airborne pathogens.
Airborne precautions include: a. Placing the client in a private isolation room with negative air pressure and high efficiency air filtration.
Isolation is the separation of individuals who can easily transmit: communicable (contagious) diseases.
Airborne precautions include: b. washing your hands properly before entering the private isolation room and immediately after leaving the private isolation room.
Airborne precautions include: c. Donning a mask such as a: N-95 mask orHEPA mask or P100 mask.
Airborne precautions include: d. Informing the client to cover their mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing and immediately discarding the tissue.
Airborne precautions include: e. Having the client wear a mask when they are transported out of the private isolation room.
Types of isolation include: 2. Separation of individuals known or suspected to be infected with a pathogen transmitted by touch called contact precautions.
Contact precautions include: a. Placing the client in a private isolation room
Contact precautions include: b. Washing your hands properly before entering the private isolation room and immediately after leaving the private isolation room.
Contact precautions include: c. Donning examination gloves and gowns if there is a possibility of touching anything inside the private isolation room.
Types of isolation include: 3. Separation of immunocompromised individuals called reverse isolation or protective isolation.
Immunocompromised means: weakened immune system.
Reverse (protective) isolation precautions include: a. placing the client in a private isolation room with positive air pressure and high efficiency air filtration.
Reverse (protective) isolation precautions include: b. Washing your hands properly before entering the private isolation room and immediately after leaving the private isolation room.
Reverse (protective) isolation precautions include: c. Donning (putting on) examination gloves and mask and gown.
Reverse (protective) isolation precautions include: d. All items entering the private isolation room are free of pathogens.
The authority on infection control in a healthcare setting is called an: epidemiologist.
An epidemiologist investigates and reports HAI which stands for: healthcare acquired infections aka nosocomial infections.
An agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) responsible for the control of communicable (contagious) diseases is abbreviated CDCP which stands for: Center for Disease Control and Prevention).
Created by: bterrelonge