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Unit 3 Test

MU BSC 105

Glands secrete _________. Hormones
___________- glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Endocrine
Where are the adrenal glands located in the human body? On top of the kidneys
What are some symptoms of hypothyroidism? Weight gain without trying, depression, fatigue, and puffiness of face, hands, and feet, hair loss
What are some symptoms of hyperthyroidism? Weight-loss, increased appetite, fatigue, high-blood pressure, nervousness, and irregular menstrual periods in women
Sex cells are called _________. Gametes
What is the female gamete? Egg or ovum
What is the male gamete? Sperm
Where are eggs found? Ovaries
Where are sperm found? Testes
What are the 5 major taste receptors? Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami
Why is there no vision in our blind spot? We have no rods or cones
If you can see far away, but not close up, what kind of vision do you have? Farsightedness
If you can see up close, but not far away, what kind of vision do you have? Nearsightedness
What are the 3 layers of the eye? Sclera, choroid, and retina
What is the outermost portion of the eye? sclera
What is the middle portion of the eye? Choroid
What is the innermost layer of the eye? Retina
What are the 2 photoreceptors in the retina? Rods and cones
Which photoreceptor is in charge of color vision? Rods or cones? Cones
What layer of the eye is the iris found in? Choroid
What is the anterior compartment of the eye composed of? Aqueous fluid
What causes glaucoma? Aqueous fluid build up
What are the 3 divisions of the ear? Outer, middle, and inner
What are the 3 ossicles? Malleus, incus, and stapes
What is the basic structural unit of a muscle? Sarcomere
List and define the 4 major functional characteristics of muscles? Contractility-Shorten with force Excitability-respond to stimulus Extensibility- stretch Elasticity- recoil
What are fibers that fatigue quickly? Fast-twitch fibers
What are fibers that are slow to fatigue? Slow-twitch fibers
Throwing a ball is an example of ___________ motion? Isotonic (muscle length changes, but force does not)
What is isometric motion? Length of the does not change but the force does
What is the connective tissue sheath directly on the muscle? Epimysium
What is the most stationary end of the muscle? Origin
What is another term for chewing? Mastication
How are muscle names descriptive? They are named according to size, shape, location, orientation of fibers, origin, insertion, and function.
What muscles change the shape of the tongue? Intrinsic tongue muscles
What muscles move the tongue? Extrinsic tongue msucles
What is the strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexors and extensor tendons and holds them in p0lace around the wrist like a bracelet? Retinaculum
What muscle comprises the buttocks? Gluteus maximus
What muscle flexes the thigh and is also known as the 'tailor's muscle?" Sartorius
What flexes the wrist? Flexor carpi
What flexes the fingers? Flexor digitorium
What extends the wrist? Extensor carpi
What extends the fingers? Extensor digitorium
What is the calf muscle? Gastrocnemius
What is the upper chest muscle? Pectoralis major
What muscle raises the eyebrows? Occipitofrontalis
What muscle closes the eyelids and causes crow's feet? Orbicularis oculi
What is the lateral neck muscle and the prime mover of the neck? Sternocleidomastoid
What is the smiling muscle? Zygomaticus
What is the frowning muscle? Depressor anguli oris
What is the sneering muscle? Levator labii superioris
Lack of iodine can cause a __________ to form on the neck region. Goiter
What are the 2 types of movement? Voluntary and Involuntary
What is isotonic movement? The muscle length changes, but the force does not
List 2 STD's Chlamydia , Gonorrhea, HPV, and HIV.
What are all symptoms of chlamydia? Men may experience a mild burning sensation on urination or a mucoid discharge 18 to 21 days after infection. Women may experience a vaginal discharge and symptoms of a urinary tract infection and cervical ulcerations. Could be asymptomatic
What are all symptoms of Gonorrhea? Pain upon urination and thick, greenish yellow, urethral discharge. In females, pelvic inflammation that could lead to damage to reproductive structures Usually characterized by pain, and pus and blood in feces.
List 2 ways to prevent STD's Abstinence and protected (safe) sex
List 2 causes of infertility Low sperm count, endometriosis, hormonal issues, STD's, and genetic factors such as Klinefelter's or Turner's
What is the neurotransmitter that is found in the synaptic vesicles called? Acetylcholine
List 2 muscles in which injections are given. Deltoid and Gluteus Medius
What is the hip muscle? Gluteus medius
What can a lack of iodine lead to? Goiters
Where do goiters usually form? In the neck region
What kind of medicine do diabetics usually take? Insulin
What are the two types of diabetes and explain the differences between the 2? Type 1-Usually onset in juveniles, the pancreas does not produce insulin. Type 2- Usually onset in adults, mostly due to being overweight or obese, the pancreas produces some insulin, but not enough to provide for the body's needs
What hormones does the pituitary gland produce? Oxytocin (growth hormone)
What hormone does the adrenal glands produce? Cortisol
What hormone does the pancreas produce? Insulin
What hormone does the testes produce? Testosterone
What hormone does the ovaries produce? Estrogen
What muscle flattens the cheeks and is also known as Trumpeter's muscles? Buccinator
What are the 2 kissing muscles? Buccinator and orbicularis oris
What muscles puckers the lips? Orbicularis oris
What attaches muscles to bones? Tendons
If one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing desired movement among synergists, what is that muscle called? Prime mover
What are muscles that work in opposition to each other called? Antagonists
What are muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements called? Synergists
Do muscles only have 1 head? No, they can have multiple heads or insertion points
What is the portion of muscle between the origin and insertion called? Belly
What is the insertion point of the muscle? The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
What is the origin of the muscle? Most stationary end of the muscle
What are the two main points of attachment for a muscle? Insertion and origin
What motions do the sternocleidomastoid allow for? Rotation and abduction
How many pairs of mastication muscles do we have? 4
What hormone does the thyroid produce? Thyroxine
What hormone does the parathyroid produce? Parathormone
What hormone does the thymus produce? Thymosine
What hormone does the pineal gand produce? Melatonin
What are the 4 pairs of mastication muscles? 2 pairs of pterygoids, 1 pair of temporalis muscles, and 1 pair of masseter muscles
What is involuntary movement? You don't have to think to do it (heartbeat and breathe)
What is voluntary movement? You have to think about it to do it (movement)
What is the shoulder muscle? Deltoid
What is the abdominal muscles called? Rectus abdominis
What are the anterior arm muscles called? Biceps brachii
What are the posterior arm muscles called? Triceps brachii
What are the anterior thigh muscles? Quadriceps
What are the posterior thigh muscles? Hamstrings
What is the triangular back muscles? Trapezius
What is the swimmers muscles? Latissimus dorsi
What empties glands to the surface? Exocrine glands
What is the thin myofilament? Actin
What is the thick myofilament? Myosin
What are the ear bones called? Ossicles
What gland is found beneath the sternum? Thymus
What does oxytocin promote? Uterine contractions
What is the smallest region of the brainstem? Midbrain
What is the neck of the uterus called? Cervix
What glands produce milk? Mammary
What type of STD is gonorrhea? Bacterial STD
What are some viral STD's? Herpes, HIV, and AIDS
True/False: Axons move away from the action potential. True
What type of muscle is voluntary? Skeletal
What are some symptoms of HPV? Genital warts or blistering, Cancer, or tumors on genitalia
What shape is each muscle fiber? Cylindrical
What are the numerous bundles that make up muscles called? Fasciculi
What surrounds each individual muscle fiber? Endomysium
What are myofibrils? Threadlike structures that fill the cytoplasm
What are the two major protein fibers? Actin and myosin
What does actin resemble? 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
What does myosin resemble? Bundles of minute golf clubs
What does actin and myosin form? Sarcomeres
What defines a sarcomere? Z line to Z line
What is found on each side of the Z line? I band
What does the I band consist of? Actin
What is the loose connective tissue sheath that surrounds the fasciculi called? Perimysium
How does the arrangement of actin and myosin affect the appearance of the sarcomere? It has a banded appearance
What is the darker central region of the sarcomere? A band
What does the A band consist of? Myosin
What is the light zone in the center of each sarcomere? H zone
What does the H zone consist of? Myosin
What is the dark staining line in the center of the sarcomere? M line
Where are the myosin myofilaments anchored at? M line
Created by: bmfortn1



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