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Reproductive System

chapter 27

QuestionAnswer
primary sex organs - gonads - testes in males and ovaries in females
what do gonads produce? - produce gametes - secrete sex hormones
accessory reproductive organs - ducts, glands, and external genitalia
what are the sex hormones? - males: androgens - females: estrogen and progesterone
Functions of sex hormones - The development and function of the reproductive organs - Sexual behavior and drives - The growth and development of many other organs and tissues
what do the testes do? - produce sperm - found in scrotum
how does sperm exit? - through a system of ducts: - epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra
MALE accessory sex organs - seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands
what do accessory sex organs do during ejaculation? - empty secretions into ducts
scrotum - Sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis
what does the positioning of the scrotum do? - keeps the testes 3 degrees cooler (for sperm production)
what keeps intrascrotal pressure constant? - dartos - cremaster
what is dartos? - smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin
what is cremaster? - bands of skeletal muscle that elevate the testes
what does the septa do? - divide the testis into 250-300 lobules, each containing 1-4 seminiferous tubules
what two tunicas are each testes surrounded by? - tunica vaginalis, derived from peritoneum - tunica albuginea, the fibrous capsule of the testis
what do the Seminiferous tubules do? - produce sperm
Testicular arteries - branch from the abdominal aorta
Testicular veins - arise from the pampiniform plexus
What do interstitial Leydig cells? - outside the seminiferous tubules produce androgens
Parts of the epidermis - head (caps superior aspect of the testis) - body - tails
what happens to the epidermis after ejaculation? - it contracts and the sperm is expelled into the ductus deferens
Vasectomy - cuts ductus deferens
What does the Spermatic cord enclose? - ductus deference - nerve fibers - blood vessels - lymphatics that supply the testes
Urethra - conveys semen and urine (at different times)
Three parts of the urethra - Prostatic – portion surrounded by the prostate - Membranous – lies in the urogenital diaphragm - Spongy, or penile – runs through penis and opens to the outside at the external urethral orifice
Prepuce/foreskin - cuff of skin covering the distal end of the penis
what does the penis consist of? - attached root and free shaft (shaft ends in glans penis)
Internal Penis - the urethra and three cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue
Erectile tissue - spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle riddled with vascular spaces
penis - A copulatory organ designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract
Erection - during sexual excitement, the erectile tissue fills with blood causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid
corpus spongiosum - surrounds the urethra and expands to form the glans and bulb of the penis
corpus cavernosa - paired dorsal erectile bodies bound by fibrous tunica albuginea
where are the seminal vesicles? - posterior wall of bladder - secretes 60% of semen
the seminal vesicles join the ductus deferens to form what? - ejaculatory duct (where sperm and seminal fluid mix before going to the prostatic urethra during ejaculation)
prostate gland - circular shaped gland that encircles part of the urethra inferior to the bladder
does the prostate play a role in sperm activation? - YES
fluid of prostate gland - 1/3 of semen volume - milky, slightly acidic fluid contains citrate, enzymes, and prostate specific antigen (PSA)
Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper’s Glands) - pea sized glands inferior to prostate - produce thick and clear mucus before ejaculation
what are the primary reproductive organs for females? - ovaries
what are the female gametes called? - ova
FEMALE accessory ducts - uterine tubes, vagina, uterus
FEMALE internal genetalia - ovaries and internal ducts
what are the ligaments that hold the ovaries in place? - ovarian: anchors ovary medially to uterus - suspensory: anchors ovary laterally to pelvic wall - mesovarium: suspends ovary by attaches to hilum of ovary
what is the broad ligament? - supports uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina - contains suspensory ligament and mesovarium
what are the ovaries surrounded by? - fibrous tunica albuginea
where are the ovarian follicles located? - embedded in ovarian cortex
what is a follicle? - immature egg (oocyte) surrounded by follicle cells (1 layer) and granulosa cells
what are the stages for follicles? - primoridal follicle - primary follicle - secondary follicle - graafian follicle
what is the primoridal follicle? - one layer of squamous like follicle cells surrounds the oocyte - most immature stage
what is the primary follicle? - two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells enclose the oocyte
what is the secondary follicle? - has a fluid-filled space between granulosa cells that combine to form a central antrum
what is the graafian follicle? - secondary follicle at its most mature stage that bulges from the surface of the ovary
what is the corpus luteum? - ruptured follicle after ovulation
what is ovulation? - ejection of the oocyte from the ripening follicle
the uterine tubes touch the ovaries FALSE oocyte is ejected into peritoneal cavity
what carries the oocyte towards the uterus - using peristalsis and ciliary action
what is the Mesosalpinx? – visceral peritoneum that supports the uterine tubes
what do cervical glands secrete? - mucus that covers the external os and blocks sperm entry except during midcycle
what is the uterus? - Hollow, thick-walled organ located in the pelvis - anterior to the rectum - posterosuperior to the bladder
what is the body? - major portion of uterus
what is the fundus? - rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes - far from entrance
What is the Isthmus? - narrowed region between the body and cervix
What is the cervix? - narrow neck which projects into the vagina inferiorly
What is the cervical canal? made of external os and internal os - internal os: the opening of the cervix into the body of the uterus - external os: the opening of the uterine cervix into the vagina
what are the supports of the uterus? - mesometrium - lateral cervical ligaments - uterosacral ligaments - round ligaments
what is the mesometrium? - portion of the broad ligament that supports the uterus laterally
what is the lateral cervical ligaments? - extend from the cervix and superior part of the vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis
what is the uterosacral ligament? - paired ligaments that secure the uterus to the sacrum
what is the round ligament? - bind the anterior wall to the labia majora
what are the peritoneal pouches? pouches of peritoneum around uterus - Vesicouterine pouch: lies between the bladder and the uterus - Rectouterine pouch: lies between the rectum and the uterus
what are the layers of the uterine wall? - perimetrium - myometrium - endometrium
what is the perimetrium? - outermost serous layer; the visceral peritoneum
what is the myometrium? - middle layer; interlacing layers of smooth muscle
what is the endometrium? - mucosal lining of the uterine cavity
what are the layers of the endometrium? - stratum functionalis - stratum basalis
What is the stratum functionalis? - Layer of endometrium - Undergoes cyclic changes in response to ovarian hormones - Is shed during menstruation
What is the stratum basalis? - layer of endometrium - does not respond to ovarian hormones - forms a new functionalis after menstruation ends
What causes the functionalis to shed during menstruation? - Degeneration and regeneration of spiral arteries
What makes up the Uterine Vascvular Supply? - uterine arteries - radial branches - arcuate arteries
What are uterine arteries? - ascend sides of uterus - arise from internal illiacs - send branches into uterine wall
what are the arcuate arteries? - branches of uterine arteries in myometrium - give rise to radial branches
what are the radial branches? - descend into endometrium - give off spiral arteries (stratum functionalis) - give off straight arteries (stratum basalis)
what is the vagina? - thin walled tube between bladder and rectum - extends from cervix to outside of body - urethra embedded in anterior wall - organ of copulation - wall consists of three coats - mucosa near vaginal orfice form incomplete partition: hymen
what is the vaginal fornix? - upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix
what is the vulva? - includes mons pubis, labia, clitoris, other vestibular structures - external to vagina
what is the Mons pubis? - round, fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis
what is the Labia majora? - elongated, hair covered, fatty skin folds - like male scrotum
what is the labia minora? - hair-free skin folds lying within the labia majora - like the ventral penis
what are the Greater vestibular glands? - Pea-size glands flanking the vagina
what is the clitoris? - erectile tissue hooded by the prepuce - exposed part is called the glans - like penis
what is the perineum? - diamond shaped region between pubic arch and coccyx - bordered by ischial tuberocities laterally
what are mammary glands? - 15-25 lobes that radiate at and open at the nipple - Lobes contain glandular alveoli that produce milk in lactating m. - Compound alveolar glands pass milk to lactiferous ducts, which open to the outside
what is the aerola? - pigmented skin surrounding the nipple
what is the function of suspensory ligaments? - attach the breast to underlying muscle fascia
what is erection? - parasympathetic nervous system - promotes release of nitrous acid
function of corpus spongiosum - keeps urethra open during ejaculation
Created by: davisobr