Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Reproductive System

chapter 27

primary sex organs - gonads - testes in males and ovaries in females
what do gonads produce? - produce gametes - secrete sex hormones
accessory reproductive organs - ducts, glands, and external genitalia
what are the sex hormones? - males: androgens - females: estrogen and progesterone
Functions of sex hormones - The development and function of the reproductive organs - Sexual behavior and drives - The growth and development of many other organs and tissues
what do the testes do? - produce sperm - found in scrotum
how does sperm exit? - through a system of ducts: - epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra
MALE accessory sex organs - seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands
what do accessory sex organs do during ejaculation? - empty secretions into ducts
scrotum - Sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis
what does the positioning of the scrotum do? - keeps the testes 3 degrees cooler (for sperm production)
what keeps intrascrotal pressure constant? - dartos - cremaster
what is dartos? - smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin
what is cremaster? - bands of skeletal muscle that elevate the testes
what does the septa do? - divide the testis into 250-300 lobules, each containing 1-4 seminiferous tubules
what two tunicas are each testes surrounded by? - tunica vaginalis, derived from peritoneum - tunica albuginea, the fibrous capsule of the testis
what do the Seminiferous tubules do? - produce sperm
Testicular arteries - branch from the abdominal aorta
Testicular veins - arise from the pampiniform plexus
What do interstitial Leydig cells? - outside the seminiferous tubules produce androgens
Parts of the epidermis - head (caps superior aspect of the testis) - body - tails
what happens to the epidermis after ejaculation? - it contracts and the sperm is expelled into the ductus deferens
Vasectomy - cuts ductus deferens
What does the Spermatic cord enclose? - ductus deference - nerve fibers - blood vessels - lymphatics that supply the testes
Urethra - conveys semen and urine (at different times)
Three parts of the urethra - Prostatic – portion surrounded by the prostate - Membranous – lies in the urogenital diaphragm - Spongy, or penile – runs through penis and opens to the outside at the external urethral orifice
Prepuce/foreskin - cuff of skin covering the distal end of the penis
what does the penis consist of? - attached root and free shaft (shaft ends in glans penis)
Internal Penis - the urethra and three cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue
Erectile tissue - spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle riddled with vascular spaces
penis - A copulatory organ designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract
Erection - during sexual excitement, the erectile tissue fills with blood causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid
corpus spongiosum - surrounds the urethra and expands to form the glans and bulb of the penis
corpus cavernosa - paired dorsal erectile bodies bound by fibrous tunica albuginea
where are the seminal vesicles? - posterior wall of bladder - secretes 60% of semen
the seminal vesicles join the ductus deferens to form what? - ejaculatory duct (where sperm and seminal fluid mix before going to the prostatic urethra during ejaculation)
prostate gland - circular shaped gland that encircles part of the urethra inferior to the bladder
does the prostate play a role in sperm activation? - YES
fluid of prostate gland - 1/3 of semen volume - milky, slightly acidic fluid contains citrate, enzymes, and prostate specific antigen (PSA)
Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper’s Glands) - pea sized glands inferior to prostate - produce thick and clear mucus before ejaculation
what are the primary reproductive organs for females? - ovaries
what are the female gametes called? - ova
FEMALE accessory ducts - uterine tubes, vagina, uterus
FEMALE internal genetalia - ovaries and internal ducts
what are the ligaments that hold the ovaries in place? - ovarian: anchors ovary medially to uterus - suspensory: anchors ovary laterally to pelvic wall - mesovarium: suspends ovary by attaches to hilum of ovary
what is the broad ligament? - supports uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina - contains suspensory ligament and mesovarium
what are the ovaries surrounded by? - fibrous tunica albuginea
where are the ovarian follicles located? - embedded in ovarian cortex
what is a follicle? - immature egg (oocyte) surrounded by follicle cells (1 layer) and granulosa cells
what are the stages for follicles? - primoridal follicle - primary follicle - secondary follicle - graafian follicle
what is the primoridal follicle? - one layer of squamous like follicle cells surrounds the oocyte - most immature stage
what is the primary follicle? - two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells enclose the oocyte
what is the secondary follicle? - has a fluid-filled space between granulosa cells that combine to form a central antrum
what is the graafian follicle? - secondary follicle at its most mature stage that bulges from the surface of the ovary
what is the corpus luteum? - ruptured follicle after ovulation
what is ovulation? - ejection of the oocyte from the ripening follicle
the uterine tubes touch the ovaries FALSE oocyte is ejected into peritoneal cavity
what carries the oocyte towards the uterus - using peristalsis and ciliary action
what is the Mesosalpinx? – visceral peritoneum that supports the uterine tubes
what do cervical glands secrete? - mucus that covers the external os and blocks sperm entry except during midcycle
what is the uterus? - Hollow, thick-walled organ located in the pelvis - anterior to the rectum - posterosuperior to the bladder
what is the body? - major portion of uterus
what is the fundus? - rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes - far from entrance
What is the Isthmus? - narrowed region between the body and cervix
What is the cervix? - narrow neck which projects into the vagina inferiorly
What is the cervical canal? made of external os and internal os - internal os: the opening of the cervix into the body of the uterus - external os: the opening of the uterine cervix into the vagina
what are the supports of the uterus? - mesometrium - lateral cervical ligaments - uterosacral ligaments - round ligaments
what is the mesometrium? - portion of the broad ligament that supports the uterus laterally
what is the lateral cervical ligaments? - extend from the cervix and superior part of the vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis
what is the uterosacral ligament? - paired ligaments that secure the uterus to the sacrum
what is the round ligament? - bind the anterior wall to the labia majora
what are the peritoneal pouches? pouches of peritoneum around uterus - Vesicouterine pouch: lies between the bladder and the uterus - Rectouterine pouch: lies between the rectum and the uterus
what are the layers of the uterine wall? - perimetrium - myometrium - endometrium
what is the perimetrium? - outermost serous layer; the visceral peritoneum
what is the myometrium? - middle layer; interlacing layers of smooth muscle
what is the endometrium? - mucosal lining of the uterine cavity
what are the layers of the endometrium? - stratum functionalis - stratum basalis
What is the stratum functionalis? - Layer of endometrium - Undergoes cyclic changes in response to ovarian hormones - Is shed during menstruation
What is the stratum basalis? - layer of endometrium - does not respond to ovarian hormones - forms a new functionalis after menstruation ends
What causes the functionalis to shed during menstruation? - Degeneration and regeneration of spiral arteries
What makes up the Uterine Vascvular Supply? - uterine arteries - radial branches - arcuate arteries
What are uterine arteries? - ascend sides of uterus - arise from internal illiacs - send branches into uterine wall
what are the arcuate arteries? - branches of uterine arteries in myometrium - give rise to radial branches
what are the radial branches? - descend into endometrium - give off spiral arteries (stratum functionalis) - give off straight arteries (stratum basalis)
what is the vagina? - thin walled tube between bladder and rectum - extends from cervix to outside of body - urethra embedded in anterior wall - organ of copulation - wall consists of three coats - mucosa near vaginal orfice form incomplete partition: hymen
what is the vaginal fornix? - upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix
what is the vulva? - includes mons pubis, labia, clitoris, other vestibular structures - external to vagina
what is the Mons pubis? - round, fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis
what is the Labia majora? - elongated, hair covered, fatty skin folds - like male scrotum
what is the labia minora? - hair-free skin folds lying within the labia majora - like the ventral penis
what are the Greater vestibular glands? - Pea-size glands flanking the vagina
what is the clitoris? - erectile tissue hooded by the prepuce - exposed part is called the glans - like penis
what is the perineum? - diamond shaped region between pubic arch and coccyx - bordered by ischial tuberocities laterally
what are mammary glands? - 15-25 lobes that radiate at and open at the nipple - Lobes contain glandular alveoli that produce milk in lactating m. - Compound alveolar glands pass milk to lactiferous ducts, which open to the outside
what is the aerola? - pigmented skin surrounding the nipple
what is the function of suspensory ligaments? - attach the breast to underlying muscle fascia
what is erection? - parasympathetic nervous system - promotes release of nitrous acid
function of corpus spongiosum - keeps urethra open during ejaculation
Created by: davisobr



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards