Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

ANP 11

Chapter 13 - Endocrine

QuestionAnswer
Where do Endocrine glands secrete their products? Secrete their products (hormones) into body fluids (the internal environment);
Where do Exocrine glands secrete their products? Secrete their products into ducts that lead to the outside of the body.
What two systems work together to control body functions? The nervous and endocrine system
What are Hormones? Substance secreted by an endocrine gland and transported in the blood, which has actions on its target cells.
What are the locations of major Endocrine glands? Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Parathyroid gland, Kidney, Testis, Pineal gland, Thyroid gland, Thymus, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, Ovary
What are target cells? A hormone’s target cells have specific receptors.
Hormones from Endocrine glands regulate? metabolic processes.
What are two types of hormones? 1-Steroids or steroid like substances. and 2-Nonsteroids (amines, peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins).
What are the hormones produced by the Hypothalamus? And what organs do they target? 1-Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Targets the Adrenal Cortex. 2-Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) same as Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Targets the Ovaries. 3-Somatostatin (SS) same as Growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone (GHRIH). Targets bones, muscle and adipose. 4-Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Targets bones, muscle and adipose. 5-Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) same as Dopamine. Targets the Mammary gland. 6-Prolactin-releasing factor. Target
What are the hormones from the Anterior pituitary gland? And what organs they target? 1-Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) same as Corticotropin. Targets the Adrenal Cortex. 2-Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) same as Follitropin. Targets the Testies. 3 -Growth hormone (GH) same as Somatotropin (STH). Targets bones, muscle and adipose. 4- Luteinizing hormone (LH) same as Lutropin, interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH). Targets the Ovaries. 5- Prolactin (PRL). Targets the Mammary gland. 6-Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) same as Thyrotropin. Targets the Thyroid.
What are the hormones from the Posterior pituitary gland? 1- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) same as Vasopressin 2-Oxytocin (OT)
What are the hormones from the Thyroid gland? 1- Calcitonin 2-Thyroxine (T4) same as Tetraiodothyronine 3- Triiodothyronine (T3)
What are the hormones from the Parathyroid gland? Parathyroid hormone (PTH) same as Parathormone
What are the hormones from the Adrenal medulla? 1. Epinephrine (EPI) same as Adrenalin 2. Norepinephrine (NE) same as Noradrenalin
What are the hormones from the Adrenal cortex? 1. Aldosterone 2. Cortisol same as Hydrocortisone
What are the hormones from the Pancreas? 1. Glucagon 2. Insulin 3. Somatostatin (SS)
What are the cells of the Nervous System? Neurons
What are the cells of the Endocrine System? Glandular epithelium
What are chemical signals of the Nervous System? Neurotransmitter
What are chemical signals of the Endocrine system? Hormones
The Nervous system specificity of action are? Receptors on postsynaptic cell
The Endocrine system specificity of action are? Receptors on target cells
The onset speed of the Nervous System is? Greater than 1 second
The onset speed of the Endocrine system is? Seconds to hours
The duration of action of the Nervous system is? Very brief unless neuronal activity continues
The duration of action of the Endocrine system is? May be brief or may last for days even if secretion ceases
Nonsteroidal hormone Amines are formed from what? And what are examples? Amino acids and examples are: 1. Norepinephrine 2. epinephrine
Nonsteroidal hormone Peptides are formed from what? And what are examples? Amino acids and examples are: 1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 2. Oxytocin (OT) 3. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) 4. Somatostatin (SS) 5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Nonsteroidal hormone Proteins are formed from what? And what are examples? Amino acids and examples are: 1. Parathyroid (PTH) 2. Growth Hormone (GH) 3. Prolactin (PRL)
The Nonsteroidal hormone Glycoproteins are formed from what? And what are examples? Protein and carbohydrate and examples are: 1. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) 2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) 3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
The Nonsteroidal hormone Steroids are formed from what? And what are examples? Cholesterol and examples are: 1. Estrogens 2. Testosterone 3. Aldosterone 4. Cortisol
What is the Chemistry of a Steroid Hormone? Steroid hormones are lipids that include complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
What are the sequence of actions of Steroid Hormone? 1 Endocrine gland secretes steroid hormone. 2 Blood carries hormone molecules throughout the body. 3. Steroid hormone diffuses through target cell membrane and enters cytoplasm or nucleus. 4. Hormone combines with a receptor molecule in the cytoplasm or nucleus. 5. Steroid hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA and promotes transcription of messenger RNA. 6. Messenger RNA enters the cytoplasm and directs protein synthesis. 7. New synthesized proteins produce the steroid hormone’s specific e
What is the mechanism of how Steroid Hormones work on cells? Steroid hormones and thyroid hormones enter target cells, passes through cell membrane and combine with receptors to form complexes (usually nucleus). These complexes activate specific genes in the nucleus (m-RNA synthesis), which direct synthesis of specific proteins. The degree of cellular response is proportional to the number of hormone-receptor complexes formed.
What are the sequence of actions of Nonsteroidal Hormone Using Cyclic AMP? 1. Endocrine gland secretes nonsteroid hormone. 2. Blood carries hormone molecules throughout the body. 3. Hormone combines with receptor site on membrane of its target cell, activating G protein. 4. Adenylate cyclase molecules are activated in target cell’s membrane. 5. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into cyclic AMP. 6. Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases. 7. Protein kinases activate protein substrates in the cell that change metabolic processes. 8. Cellular changes produce the hormon
How does ATP converts into cAMP? -A hormone binds to its receptor, and the resulting hormone-receptor complex activates a protein called a G protein, which then activates an enzyme called adenylate cyclase, which is an integral membrane protein with its active site facing the inside of the cell. -Activated adenylate cyclase removes two phosphates from ATP and reconnects the exposed oxygen, forming cyclic AMP. -Cyclic AMP activates another set of enzymes called protein kinases that transfer phosphate groups from ATP to protein subst
What is an example of a Second Messenger? Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, or cAMP).
What is the mechanism of how Non -Steroid Hormones work on cells? -Non steroid hormones combine with receptors in the target cell membrane. -A hormone-receptor complex stimulates membrane proteins, such as adenylate cyclase, to induce the formation of second messenger molecules. (ATP to c-AMP) -A second messenger, such as cAMP, activates protein kinases. -Protein kinases activate certain protein substrate molecules, which, in turn, change cellular processes.
Hormone secretion is controlled in what type of feedback? Negative Feedback
What happens in a Negative feedback system? In a negative feedback system, a gland is sensitive to the physiological effect that its hormone brings about. When the physiological effect reaches a certain level, it inhibits the gland. As the gland secretes less hormone, the physiological effect is lessened.
Examples of Endocrine system control? 1. The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary. or 2. The nervous system controls some glands directly. or 3..Some glands respond directly to changes in the level of a substance in the blood. – indicates negative feedback inhibition.
Explain Hypothalamus control The hypothalamus, which constantly receives information about the internal environment, controls the anterior pituitary gland’s release of hormones. Many anterior pituitary hormones affect the activity of other glands. Hormones that act on other glands are called tropic hormones
Explain Nervous System control The nervous system directly stimulates some glands. The adrenal medulla, for example, secretes its hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) in response to impulses from preganglionic sympathetic neurons. The secretory cells replace the postganglionic sympathetic neurons, which would normally secrete norepinephrine alone as a neurotransmitter
Explain other group of gland control Another group of glands responds directly to changes in the composition of the internal environment. For example, when the blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin, and when the blood glucose level falls, it secretes glucagon
How much time are hormone secretions under negative feedback control? As a result of negative feedback, hormone concentrations remain relatively stable, although they may fluctuate slightly above and below average concentrations.
Where is the Pituitary Gland located? -At the base of the brain, is about one centimeter in diameter. -It is attached to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk, or infundibulum, and lies in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone,
What are the two distinct portions of the Pituitary Gland? 1. Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) 2. Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
What hormones are secreted at the anterior lobe of the Pituitary gland? 1. Growth hormone (GH) 2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 5. luteinizing hormone (LH), and 6. prolactin (PRL)
What are the actions of Growth hormone (GH)? 1. Growth hormone stimulates body cells to grow and divide. 2. Enhances movement of amino acid through membranes 3. Promotes growth of long bones Source of Control: -Secretion is stimulated by Growth hormone-releasing hormone and -Inhibited by somatostatin from the hypothalamus control GH secretion.
What are the actions of Prolactin (PRL)? -PRL promotes breast development and stimulates milk production. Source of Control: -Prolactin release-inhibiting hormone from the hypothalamus restrains secretion of prolactin. -Whereas prolactin-releasing factors are thought to promote its secretion.
What are the actions of Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)? TSH controls secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland. Source of Control: -The hypothalamus, by secreting thyrotropin-releasing hormone, regulates TSH secretion.
What are the actions of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)? -Controls secretion of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex. Source of Control: Corticotropin-releasing hormones (CRH) from the Hypothalamus.
What are the actions of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)? 1. Development of egg-containing follicles in ovaries; 2. Stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogen. 3. In males stimulates production of sperm cells. Source of Control: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus.
What are the actions of Luteinizing hormone (LH or ICSH in males)? 1. Promotes secretion of sex hormones 2. Releases egg cell in females Source of Control: -Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus.
What hormones are secreted at the posterior lobe of the Pituitary gland? -The cells that make up the posterior lobe do not synthesize hormones. -However, specialized neurons, whose axon endings enter the posterior lobe of the pituitary, secrete into the bloodstream two important hormones: 1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and 2. Oxytocin (OT). -The cell bodies of these neurons are in the hypothalamus.
What are the actions of Oxytocin (OT)? 1. OT has an antidiuretic effect and can contract smooth muscle in the uterine wall. 2. OT also contracts certain cells associated with production and ejection of milk from the milk glands of the breasts. Source of Control: -Hypothalamus in response to stretching uterine and vaginal walls and stimulation of breasts
What are the actions of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)? 1. ACTH controls the secretion of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex. Source of Control: -The hypothalamus, by secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone, regulates ACTH secretion.
What is Hypothalamic control? -Each of the hypothalamic releasing hormones acts on a specific population of cells upon reaching the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. -Some of the resulting actions are inhibitory (prolactin release-inhibiting hormone and somatostatin). -But most stimulate the anterior pituitary to release hormones that stimulate the secretions of peripheral endocrine glands. -In many of these cases, negative feedback relationships regulate hormone levels in the bloodstream
Where is the Thyroid Gland located? -The thyroid gland is a vascular structure that consists of two large lateral lobes connected by a broad isthmus. -The thyroid lies just inferior to the larynx (voicebox) on either side and anterior to the trachea (windpipe).
Describe the structure of the Thyroid gland -Cavities in the follicles are lined with a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells, called follicular cells. -A clear viscous substance called colloid fills the cavities. It consists primarily of a glycoprotein called thyroglobulin. -The follicular cells produce and secrete hormones that are either stored in the colloid or released into nearby capillaries. -Follicular cells secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine. -Extrafollicular cells secrete calcitonin.
What hormones are secreted by the Thyroid gland? 1. T4 2. T3 3. Calcitonin -Thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine(T3) are collectively called thyroid hormone. Both from anterior pituitary gland. -These hormones increase the rate of metabolism, enhance protein synthesis, and stimulate lipid breakdown. -These hormones are needed for normal growth and development and for maturation of the ¬nervous system -Calcitonin lowers blood calcium and phosphate ion concentrations. Comes from digestive hormones. -This hormone prevents prolonged elevat
Explain regulation of Thyroid Hormone secretion? -TSH from the anterior pituitary gland controls the level of thyroid hormone. -TRH from the hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release TSH, and then -TSH stimulates release of thyroid hormones (accompanied by negative feedback to the hypothalamus) : reduces TSH & TRH
Name the Thyroid Gland Disorders 1. Hyperthyroidism 2. Graves disease 3. Hashimoto disease 4. Hypothyroidism (infantile) 5. Hypothyroidism (adult) 6. Simple goiter
Hyperthyroidism -High metabolic rate -sensitivity to heat -restlessness -hyperactivity -weight loss -protruding eyes -goiter
Graves disease Autoantibodies (against self) bind TSH receptors on thyroid cell membranes, mimicking action of TSH. -Overstimulating gland (hyperthyroidism) -Exopthalmia (protrusion of the eyes) and -Goiter
Hashimoto disease Autoantibodies (against self) destroy thyroid cells, resulting in hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism (infantile) Stunted growth, abnormal bone formation, intellectual disability, sluggishness
Hypothyroidism (adult) -Low metabolic rate -Sensitivity to cold -Sluggishness -Poor appetite -Swollen tissues -Mental dullness
Simple goiter -Deficiency of thyroid hormones due to iodine deficiency. -Because no thyroid hormones inhibit pituitary release of TSH, thyroid is overstimulated and enlarges but functions below normal (hypothyroidism)
Describe the structure of the Parathyroid gland - 4 small lobes embedded in the thyroid gland. - Each gland is small and yellow-brown, within a thin connective tissue capsule. - Each gland consists of secretory cells well supplied with capillaries.
Location of the Parathyroid gland? Are on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
What hormone is secreted by the Parathyroid gland? -Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
What are the actions of Parathyroid hormone in bones? -The extracellular matrix of bone tissue contains a considerable amount of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. -PTH stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts and inhibits the activity of osteoblasts -As bone resorption increases, calcium and phosphate ions are released into the blood. -At the same time, PTH causes the kidneys to conserve blood calcium ions and to excrete more phosphate ions in the urine. -This combined action restores the blood calcium ion concentration without increasin
What are the actions of Parathyroid hormone in the small intestine? -PTH also indirectly stimulates absorption of calcium ions from food in the intestine by influencing metabolism of vitamin D. -Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) synthesis begins when intestinal enzymes convert dietary cholesterol into the inactive form, provitamin D. -This provitamin is largely stored in the skin, and exposure to the ultraviolet wavelengths of sunlight changes it to vitamin D. Some vitamin D also comes from foods.
What are the actions of Parathyroid hormone in the Kidneys -The liver changes vitamin D to hydroxycholecalciferol, which is carried in the bloodstream or stored in tissues. -When PTH is present, hydroxycholecalciferol can be changed in the kidneys into the active form of vitamin D. which stimulates absorption of calcium ions from the intestine
Explain the Negative feedback of Parathyroid glands? -A negative feedback mechanism operating between the parathyroid glands and the blood calcium ion concentration regulates secretion of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH). -As the concentration of blood calcium ions rises, less PTH is secreted. -As the concentration of blood calcium ions drops, more PTH is released.
Hyperparathyroidism Increased PTH secretion overstimulates osteoclasts. -Fatigue -Muscular weakness -Painful joints -Altered mental functions -Depression -Weight loss -Bone weakening Cause: -Tumor Treatment: -Remove tumor -Correct bone deformities
Hypoparathyroidism -Decreased PTH secretion reduces osteoclast activity -Diminishing blood calcium ion concentration. -Muscle cramps and seizures. Cause: -Inadvertent surgical removal. -injury Treatment: -Calcium salt injections -Massive doses of vitamin D
Where is the Adrenal gland located? Are located atop the kidneys.
Structure of the Adrenal gland? -Each adrenal gland consists of a medulla and a cortex. -The Adrenal Medulla and cortex are distinct in that they secrete different hormones.
What hormones are secreted by the Adrenal medulla? 1. Epinephrine - secreted during the time of stress. 2. Norepinephrine. -Epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine
What are the actions of the hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine? -These hormones are synthesized from tyrosine and are chemically similar. -These hormones produce effects similar to those of the sympathetic nervous system. -Sympathetic impulses originating from the hypothalamus stimulate secretion of these hormones.
What are the effects of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine on the Heart? -Heart rate increases and Force of contraction increases
What are the effects of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine on the Blood vessels? Epinephrine & Norepinephrine: -Vasodilation, especially important in skeletal muscle at onset of fight or flight.
What are the effects of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine on the Systemic Blood Pressure? -Some increase due to increased cardiac output.
What are the effects of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine on the Airway? Epinephrine: -Dilation -Reticular formation of brainstem activated. Norepinephrine: -Some dilation -little effect on reticular formation of brainstem.
What are the effects of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine on the Liver? Epinephrine: -Promotes breakdown of glycogen to glucose. -Increasing blood sugar level. -Reticular formation of brainstem increased. Norepinephrine: -Little effect on blood glucose level. -Reticular formation of brainstem increased
What hormones are secreted by the Adrenal cortex? -Aldosterone -Cortisol -Adrenal androgens Cortisol and Aldosterone have very similar molecular structures.
What are the overall actions of the hormone Aldosterone? 1. Decreasing blood pressure and/or sodium ion concentration stimulate secretion of the enzyme renin. 2. Angiotensin II stimulates adrenal cortical cells to secrete aldosterone. 3. Aldosterone acts on the kidney to conserve sodium ions and (by osmosis) water. 4. Blood pressure and/or sodium ion concentration return toward normal, inhibiting further secretion of renin.
What is the specific actions of Aldosterone and factors regulating secretion? -Helps regulate the concentration of extracellular electrolytes by conserving sodium ions and excreting potassium ions Factors regulating secretion? -Plasma potassium and sodium ion concentrations and -Renin-angiotensin system
What is the specific actions of Cortisol and factors regulating secretion? -Decreases protein synthesis, increases fatty acid release, and stimulates glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrates -Factors regulating secretion: CRH from the hypothalamus and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland
What is the specific actions of Adrenal androgens and factors regulating secretion? -Supplement sex hormones from the gonads; may be converted into estrogens Factors regulating secretion: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary plus unknown factors
Negative feedback of Adrenal cortex? -A negative feedback involves the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex. -The hypothalamus secretes CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) into the hypophyseal portal veins, which carry the CRH to the anterior pituitary gland, stimulating it to secrete ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) -In turn, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release cortisol. Cortisol inhibits release of both CRH and ACTH. As concentration of these substances falls, cortisol production drops. Stress incr
What are the secretory tissues of the pancreas? - The pancreas consists of two major types of secretory tissues: -This organization reflects the dual function of the pancreas as an exocrine gland that secretes digestive juice through a duct. -And an endocrine gland that releases hormones that control the blood glucose level.
Describe structure of the pancreas -The pancreas is posterior to the stomach and is attached to the small intestine. -The endocrine portion, called the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans), secretes glucagon, insulin and somatostatin.
What are the hormones of the Pancreatic Islets? 1. Glucagon 2. Insulin 3. Somatostatin
What are the actions of Glucagon? And the source of control? -Stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and convert noncarbohydrates into glucose. -Stimulates breakdown of fats. Source of control is: Blood glucose concentration
What are the actions of Insulin? And the source of control? -Promotes formation of glycogen from glucose -Inhibits conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose, and enhances movement of glucose through adipose and muscle cell membranes, decreasing blood glucose concentration. -promotes transport of amino acids into cells; enhances synthesis of proteins and fats. Source of control is: Blood glucose concentration
What are the actions of Somatostatin? -Helps regulate carbohydrates
Explain insulin and glucagon secretion -The hormone insulin is also a protein, and its main effect is exactly opposite that of glucagon. -Insulin stimulates the liver to form glycogen from glucose and inhibits conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose. -Insulin also has the special effect of promoting the facilitated diffusion of glucose through the membranes of cells bearing insulin receptors. -These cells include those of adipose tissue, liver, and resting skeletal muscle. -Insulin action decreases the concentration of blood glu
Explain Negative feedback of insulin and glucagon secretion -A negative feedback system sensitive to the concentration of blood glucose regulates insulin secretion. -When glucose concentration is relatively high, such as after a meal, the beta cells release insulin. -By promoting formation of glycogen in the liver and entrance of glucose into adipose and muscle cells, insulin helps prevent excessive rise in blood glucose concentration (hyperglycemia). -Then, when the glucose concentration falls, as it normally does between meals or during the night, insul
Explain Negative feedback of insulin and glucagon secretion - The brain -Neurons, including those of the brain, obtain glucose by a facilitated diffusion mechanism not dependent on insulin, but rather only on the glucose concentration gradient. -A consequence of this independence is that neurons are particularly sensitive to changes in blood glucose concentration. Conditions that cause such changes are likely to affect brain functions.
Explain the relationship btw Insulin and Glucagon -Insulin and glucagon secretion respond in opposite directions to changes in blood glucose level. When one increases, the other decreases -These hormones function together to maintain a relatively constant blood glucose concentration, despite great variations in the amounts of ingested carbohydrates.
Stress -Stress occurs when the body responds to stressors that threaten the maintenance of homeostasis. -Stress responses include increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and increased secretion of adrenal hormones.
Hypothalamus and Stress: Fight or Fight -During the alarm stage of stress, the hypothalamus helps prepare the body for “fight or flight” by triggering sympathetic impulses to various organs. -It also stimulates epinephrine release, intensifying the sympathetic responses. -In the resistance stage, the hypothalamus stimulates the adrenal cortex to release cortisol, which promotes longer-term responses that resist the effects of stress.
Major Events in the General Adaptation Syndrome steps 1-3 1-In response to stress, impulses are conducted to the hypothalamus. 2-Sympathetic impulses originating from the hypothalamus increase blood glucose concentration, blood glycerol concentration, blood fatty acid concentration, heart rate, and blood pressure. They dilate air passages, shunt blood into skeletal muscles, and increase secretion of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. 3-Epinephrine intensifies and prolongs sympathetic actions.
Major Events in the General Adaptation Syndrome steps 4-8 4-The hypothalamus secretes CRH, which stimulates secretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary gland. 5-ACTH stimulates release of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. 6-Cortisol increases the concentration of blood amino acids, releases fatty acids, & stimulates formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources. 7-Secretion of glucagon from the pancreas & growth hormone from the anterior pituitary increase. 8-Glucagon & growth hormone aid mobilization of energy sources and stimulate uptake of amino acid by
Major Events in the General Adaptation Syndrome steps 9-11 9-Secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary increases. 10-ADH promotes the retention of water by the kidneys, which increases blood volume. 11-Renin increases blood levels of angiotensin II, which acts as a vasoconstrictor and also stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone.
Major Events in the General Adaptation Syndrome steps 12-14 12-Aldosterone stimulates sodium retention by the kidneys. 13-Long-term mobilization of nutrients depletes fat stores and leads to protein breakdown and eventual wasting. 14-Persistent sodium retention in response to aldosterone can cause potassium depletion and acid-base imbalance.
Created by: bonitasoul