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154 ESL Supplemental

Content Review

Grammatical competence This aspect of communicative competence encompasses knowledge of Lexical items and rules of morphology, syntax, semantics, and phonology
Discourse Competence it has to do with the ability the learner has to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form meaningful utterances
Socio-Linguistic Competence knowledge of socio-cultural rules of language and discourse, An understanding of social context is required; roles of participation, the information they share, and the function of interaction
Stratigic Competence deals with non-verbal and verbal communication skills the learner uses to compensate for breakdowns due to insufficient competence or variables related to performance.
Communicative Competence Grammatical knowledge plus the ability to use that knowledge to develop meaningful utterances
Grammar the metal process that allows human beings to form and interpret the sound, words, and sentences of there language
English language learners have to combine... Grammatical Competence with the knowledge of how to use grammatical structures appropriately in the second language.
Competency 001 Concepts: The ESL teacher understands fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English language
Phonetics Articulation and perception of speech sounds as physical objects, the study of how speech sounds are made and perceived. (Articulation)
Why are languages so different? Because of the point and manner of articulation
Phonology The study of how language organizes speech sounds into meaningful systems. (System of Sound)
Phonemes Smallest unit of meaningful sound. ( Letter Sounds)
How many phonemes are in the word SUNNY? 4 (S) (U) (NN) (Y)
How may phonemes are in the word BOOK? 3 (B) (OO) (K)
Phonemes are... Letter Sounds (c)at
Graphemes are... Letters A,B,C,D...
Allophones Are sounds that occur in a phonetic environment (phonetic context in which a sound occurs)
Allophones are... Spelled the same, but sound different EX: pecan/pecan; sounds like (Pe-con) Data/Data; sounds like (Daa-ta, sort A sound) Route; like the ROOT of a tree/ Route sounds like (Roout, longer ou sound)
Phonological interference is when.... and English language learner is at the early stages of second language acquisition might sound out English words inaccurately by applying letter-sound association from his/her primary language (L1).
What is an example of phonological interference? When a Spanish speakers in the beginnings of ELL's pronounce the word "very" as /beri/ with a /b/ sound. This is called first language (L1) phonological interference.
Voiceless sounds produced WITHOUT vocal cord vibration. EX: say letter in parentheses (S)ue (P)am (T)ake
Voicing occurs when our vocal cords vibrate or not because of the pronunciation of the sound
Voiced sounds produced WITH vocal cord vibration EX: say letters in parentheses (Z)oo (B)ike (V)an
In English do all vowel sounds make our vocal cords vibrate? YES
Mary wrote a BOOK? emphasis is on... The object
The object The person
Mary WROTE a book? emphasis is on... The action verb
Does the question end up, down, or flat Would you like a coffee? Intonation is Rising (up)
? ntonation is Falling (down) I
Intonation Refers to the rise and fall of pitch over entire sentence
Morphology The study of the formation of words (morphemes, allomorphs..)
Suprasegmental Phonology (Prosody) Organization of sounds into larger units: length, tone, intonation, and stress ( How the message/sentence is delivered)
Length duration of a sound; vowel/consonant. EX: Long vowel "sheep" Short vowel "ship"
Tone the use of pitch (low pitch or high pitch) to convey meaning at the word level
Lexical relating to the words or vocabulary of a language
What is a Lexical word? A lexical item (lexical word) is what we normally recognize as "the ordinary word." A lexical can also be a part of a word or a chain of words. Lexical terms are the basic building blocks of a language's vocabulary EX: canine/ dogs perilous /dangers
Stress A prosodic element used to give intensity or emphasis to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or a sentence. EX: REcord reCORD SUBject subJECT
What should a teacher in a classroom do if ELL's are having difficulty distinguishing the meaning variation between sentences? ESL Teachers should use effective concrete approaches to teach differences in speech, such as role play or acting out the sentence.
Morphology the smallest units of language that carry information about meaning or function. Morphemes CANNOT be divided into smaller parts. EX: The word BOOKS has 2 morphemes "book" and "-s"
What is a morpheme that can stand by itself called? Free Morpheme EX: BOOKING "BOOK" is the free morpheme "-ing" is not
What is a morpheme that cannot stand by itself called? Bound Morpheme EX: BOOKISH book is free "-ISH" is bound
How many bound and free morphemes are in the word IMPERFECTION? there are 2 bound and 1 free (IM-)(PERFECT)(-ION) B F B
Allomorphs The variant forms of a morpheme, used to express indefiniteness in English, for instance, has two forms - a before a word that begins with a consonant and -an before a word that begins with a vowel. EX: an orange a building an accent a car an eagle
Syntax The system of hoe phrases and sentence are built form the words they contain, and how phrases are combined into larger phrases and sentences. ( the order in which words combined to create meaningful utterances; grammar)
The sentence below is an example of... "I have a car red" Syntactical interference English learners in early stages of ESL may arrange the parts of a sentence by imposing syntactical knowledge from there own language . The example in the question is from a Spanish speaker
What are some ways that a ESL teacher can help English language learners not misplace the position of grammatical categories of a sentence in English? By allowing ELL's many opportunities to practice spoken and written meaningful sentences. Some strategies are highlighting, underlying words, and cutting sentence apart (syntax surgery)
Semantics The study of meaning of words or the interpretation of words and sentences. (What we accept as the meaning of a word" "Slang words or Phrases" EX: " I'm so fly" "That's sick"
Denotation the meaning of a word in a dictionary EX: the denotation of the word "winter" corresponds to the season between the autumn and spring, regardless of whether it is cold or not.
Synonymy/Synonyms Are words or expressions that have the same meaning in some or all contexts. EX: purchase/buy automobile/car remember/recall
Antonym/Antonyms Words and phrases that are opposite with respect to some component of their meaning. EX: boy and girl are opposite with respect to gender
Polysemy Semantic relation occurs in situations in which a word has two or more related meanings. EX: Bright= shining/intelligent deposit= minerals in the earth/ money in the bank
Homophone words in which a single form has two or more entirely distinct meanings EX: piece/peace right/write
Idiom a set of words or expression whose meaning in not predictable form usual meanings of the words. EX: "pulling my leg" (kidding) "it's raining cat's and dog's out there" (pouring)
Pragmatics the system of the use of language in social contexts; sociolinguistic awareness. ( knowing what to say or do correctly with a person your speaking with)
Discourse The connected series of utterances produced during a conversation, a story or lecture.
Discourse Analysis rules of conversation, speech registers, and nonverbal communication. EX: body language, gestures, eye contact, and physical distance
What is an effective way to help English Language Learners (ELLs) develop the skills needed in social and academic settings? Role Playing, is a concrete strategy to help ELLs learning internalized social interactions. EX: Greeting or Addressing different audiences, answering questions, and saying good bye
Register The way speakers use language in different styles depending on the context f a communicative event in terms of topic, audience, situation, experience and purpose of the communication. informal conversation with friends VS. formal conversation with a job
Language Borrowing Words that we borrow form other languages EX: Sombrero from sombra meaning shade barbecue from barbacoa form the Caribbean rodeo from rodeo a Spanish word
Language Interference Influence from the first of native language. EX: a beginner whose first language (L1) is Spanish might pronounce the sentence "I speak Spanish" as follows "I speak Espanish" since Spanish does not allow "st' blends in the initial position of a word.
Language Intraference Occurs inside the second language. EX: An intermediate ELL may overgenralize the "ed" suffix in "goed', and "drawed"
Code Switching When a speaker alternates two or more languages in the same sentence (intra sentential) or between (inter sentenial) intra (Beginners) inter ( Advanced) Language is a developmental process, not linear
The sentence " My name is Pedro. I go to Miami para vacaciones. Mi hermana is Mirella." is and example of.. Code Switching
Noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. The plural form of nouns add "-s" EX: bottle -bottles nouse that end in "ch", "x" or s add "es" EX: box-boxes nouns ending in "f" or" fe", change the "f" to "v" and add "es" EX: wolf-wolves
Possessive noun Shows ownership
Personal pronouns Refers to a person He, They, I , myself....
Adjectives describe or modify the noun, generally appear immediately before the noun EX: a PRETTY baby HEAVY box Opposite meaning by adding a prefix clear-unclear common-uncommon
Adverbs Modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb EX: it is RAINING HARD it is EXTREMELY HOT "Smart phones are MUCH FASTER than regular phones"
Regular Verbs form their past and past participle by adding "ed" EX: study, studied, studied invent, invented, invented ask, asked, asked
Irregular Verbs DO NOT have definite rules EX: grow, grew, grown have, had, had do, did, done come, came, come
Gerunds A gerund (verb+ ing) acts like a noun in a sentence. EX: SMOKING is bad for you My hobby is COLLECTING stamps form other countries.
Direct Object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb EX: Peter buys flowers flowers is the direct object
Indirect Object Is a noun or pronoun for which the action is done EX: Peter buys flowers for his MOTHER mother is the indirect object
Competency 002 Acquisition: The ESL teacher understands the processes of the first-language (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition and the inter-relatedness of L1 ans L2
The Behavioristic Approach This theory states that language is learned by imitation and developed through a system of habits; for every action there is a reaction, repetition, and reinforcement, stimulus and response observable response. "Monkey see Monkey Do" (Closed System)
B.F. Skinner constructed a Behavioristic model of linguistic in his Verbal Behavior in 1957. (The Behavioristic Approach)
The Nativist/ Generative Approach human beings have an innate cognitive capacity for language. Human beings have a language acquisition device (LAD) that enables them to generate language. Language use is a creative and open ended process, not a closed system of behavioral habits.
Noam Chomsky Chomsky research revealed that children Overgeneralize in early stages of first language acquisition . Supported the concept of innateness, Nativism/Generativism- Generative Grammar 1959 as well as, Eric Lennerberg 1967, and McNeill 1966
Overgeneralization Occurs in all language and leads to words which usually hear in speech of young children such as, goed, drawed,comed, mouses, fishes....
Examples of overgenarlizations such as goed instead of went shows that young children do not always imitate their parents, instead they show... innate cognitive capacity to create or generate words.
Cognitive Prerequisites language development as the result of the interaction of child's perceptual and cognitive development with linguistic and non-linguistic evens in the environment.
Jean Piaget Children use language to represent their own reality of the world. Language is reflection of thought. Cognitive development (development of thought processes) preceded language development.
Sensorimotor, Pre-Operational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational are all what? Piaget's Theory of cognitive Development form Infancy to Adulthood.
Lois Bloom Strong supporter of cognitive development
Dan Slobin Strong supporter of cognitive development
Lewis Carrol Strong supporter of cognitive development
Lev S. Vygotsky Social Constructivism and Language Development: focuses on relationship between thought and language. Social communication precedes and promotes language development. Language development depends on social and cultural interaction with the environment
Which Theory of language acquisition is based on the belief that a child's language development depends primarily on repetition and mimicry? Behaviorist
Stephen Krashen Created the monitor model, this model is probably the most widely cited of theories of second language acquisition. It contains five central hypotheses.
Acquisition Learning Hypothesis Is the subconscious process of internalizing linguistic competence and performance. It's natural, fun, authentic, real the same way children learn there native languages.
Natural Order Hypothesis Predictable, acquired not learned
Monitor Hypothesis The acquisition of a second language involves conscious knowledge about correctness of a language. The learner consciously, edits or corrects grammatical mistakes, and ungrammatical utterances by applying second language (L2) learned rules.
Input Hypothesis message must be presented or encoded in a way that the message is easily understood. Meaningful Comprehension.
Affective Filter Hypothesis Have a risk free and comfortable environment in which to acquire and learn a second language.
Comprehensible Input pictures, visuals, and facial expressions work to make language more easily understood allowing them to draw on multiple cues to determine meaning . Reception (listening/reading) precedes production (speaking/writing)
Jim Cummin's Created the SUP and CUP models
SUP Separate Underlying Proficiency
CUP The Common Underlying Proficiency
BICS Basic, Interpersonal, Communication, and Skills
CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
According to Cummins students develop basic interpersonal communication skills approximately within three years after initial exposure to the new language
SUP is It’s holds that proficiency in the first language (L1) is separate from proficiency in the second language (L2) . Skills, knowledge and concepts acquires in L1 CANNOT be transferred to L2
CUP is Holds that most of the skills and concepts learned in L1 are transferred to L2, Also known as the Iceberg Analogy.
The Iceberg Analogy Two languages are separate above the surface ( two languages visibly different in normal conversation) Bit underneath the surface the two iceberg dare subsumed so that the two languages do not function separately.
BICS is social, language used to communicate in everyday situations, context embedded language, takes 1-2 years for L2 to reach L1
CALP is Academic language, language used to develop higher order thinking skills, context reduced language, takes 5-7 years for L2 to reach L1
Accords to Cummins students develop Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency within... 5-7 years, without ESL methods. This process can be accelerated with the use of appropriate ESL teaching methodology
The Threshold Theory is
Competency 003 ESL teaching methodology, Planning and implementing effective, appropriate instruction, Utilizing the ELPS, Resources/Materials, Incorprating technology, Grouping.
Affective Support is anxiety free learning situation, valued native language and culture, positive interactions, praise, establish routines, be kind and understanding
Linguistic Support is research based language instruction, meaningful interactions with more proficient english spoken, instruction designed for level proficiency, explicit vocab instruction
Cognitive Support is Scaffolding, check often for understanding, provide multiple and meaningful opportunities, enhance group interactions,
How do you meet the affective needs for your ELLS? find out what they already know and build on that, allow them to use their native language when necessary and even teach others about their native language and culture, advocate for their rights
How do I meet the cognitive needs of my ELLS? have high expectations, speak slowly enunciate clearly and don't use idioms without explaining them, make connections between concepts and vocab, teach students valuable study skills and thinking strategies, modify lessons
how do i meet the linguistic needs of my ELLS? understand the language learning process and design instruction/questioning techniques and acceptable student responses for their proficiency level, expand and elaborate on what students are saying, increase interaction in class by grouping, correct error
Audiolingual Method (ALM) This program focuses on aural/oral (listening/speaking) based on the structural linguistics and behavioral psychology (skinner) taught through mimicry, memorization, and manipulation. Isolate grammar structure to prevent student errors
Audiolingual Method (ALM) little or no grammatical explanation, grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation. vocab is strictly limited and learned in content, use of tape, language labs, and visual aids, great importance is attached to pronunciation
Grammar Translation method Emphasis on reading and writing skills, with little concern for oral language little to no attention is given to pronunciation. Taught in mother tongue(L1) with little active use of second language.
Direct Method Referred as the Berlitz method, emphasis on natural language acquisition. Demonstration with role-playing through active use of pictures, films, tapes, and other visuals. Stress on total immersion in L2 with no use of L1
Cognitive code learning( cognitive approach) Conscious awareness of rules and there applications in L2, creative cognitive process rather than pattered predictable one that can be manipulated with conditioning.
Which language instructional methods/approaches gave emphasis on all four language learning skills(listing, speaking,reading,and writting)? Cognitive code learning (cognitive approach)
Suggestopedia Human beings are capable of processing great quantities of material, if they are provided with the appropriate conditions for learning such as relaxation. (Relaxed way of learning)
The Silent Way Learning is facilittated if the learner discovers or creathers rather than repeats what is to be learned, accompanying physical objects, and by problem solving involving the material to be learned
Total Physical Response (TPR) Listening before producing verbal speech or speaking. Teachers give commands and model the physical movement to carry out the command
This method is useful for both adults and children in the early stages of L2 learning Total Physical Response
The Natural Approach Emphasis is on the generality of the acquisition process, techniques fovus on providing context in the classroom for natural language acqusition to occur in order to acquire the max comprehensible input
Which approach puts emphasis on speech through the creations of low-anxiety situations, and theorizes that language acquisition emerges in four stages. The Natural Approach
Content Based ESL ESL instruction is integrated with subject matter instruction, ELLs instruction not only focuses on learning English as a second language, but also uses that language (L2) as a way to learn science,math,social studies or any academic discipline
A model for ESL teaching that integrates language and content instruction in the ESL classroom. This model also a REQUIRED program in the State of Texas, serves only students identified as (ELLs) by providing a full-time ESL certified teacher Content based ESL
Pull-Out ESL Students remain in mainstream classes (math,science, social studies, and other academic disciplines) only pulled out for special instruction with an ESL certified teacher for English language arts ONLY.
This model is a required program in Texas, serves only ELL by assigning an ESL part-time teacher who teaches ONLY English language arts instruction Pull-Out ESL
Sheltered Instruction Focuses on making grade-level academic content more accessible for English language learners (ESL) while at the same promoting their English language proficiency . Uses social, cognitive and meta cognate energy learning strategies
Which instructional method let Teachers adjust the language and content demands of the lesson in many ways, such as modifying speech, tone, using context clues, modeling extensively, relating instruction to student experience and background knowledge. Sheltered Instruction
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) Focuses on academics skills, supports cognitive theories, useful for esl students that have developed BICS (basic interpersonal communications skills)
CALLA is useful for... foreign students who have developed CALP ( academic language/cognitive skills) in their L1 and need assistance in transferring concepts and skills Into L2
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Protocol provides concerts example of the features of sheltered instruction that enhances, expanses and etches teachers instructional practice.
SIOP includes Eight components: Preparation, Building Bachground, Comprehensible Input, Strategies, Interaction, Pratice/Application, Lesson Delivery and Review Assessment
ESOL I English for Speakers of Other Languages for beginners levels
ESOL II English for Speakers of Other Languages for Intermediate levels
ELPS English Language Proficiency Standards- taught K-12th, not grade specific, but specific to Proficiency level; linguistically accommodated Instruction
TELPAS Assesses the English language proficiency in listing, speaking, reading, and writing of K-12th ELLs
What measures how well ELLs understand and use English for everyday use and academic purposes? TELPAS
How many level of English Proficiency does TELPAS report? 4 Beginning (B) Intermediate (I) Advanced (A) Advanced High (AH)
5 stages of language acquisition 1. silent/receptive stage 2. early production stage 3. speech emergency stage 4. intermediate language proficiency stage 5. advanced language proficiency stage
silent/ receptive stage or pre-production last from 10 hours to 6 months; words they can understand but may not be comfortable using; can understand new words that are made comprehensible to them; may involve a silent period; can answer yes/no questions
early production stage 6 months; 1,000 active words that they're able to understand and use; short 1-2 word phrases; can answer basic questions such as yes/no and short answer
speech emergence stage 1 year; developed 3,000 words and can use short phrases and simple sentences; begin to use dialogue and ask simple questions; able to answer simple questions; may produce longer sentences but has grammatical errors that can interfere with communication
intermediate language proficiency stage up to 1 year; 6,000 words; beginning to make complex statements, state opinions, asks for clarification, shares thoughts, and speaks at greater length
advanced language proficiency stage 5-7 years; specialized content-area vocabulary and can particulate fully in grade-level classroom activities if given occasional support; can speak English comparable to that of same-age native speakers
General principles for teaching ELL students 1. increase comprehensibility 2. increase interaction 3. increase thinking/study skills 4. use student's native language to increase comprehensibility
What are the four languages abilities/skills/modes that are develop interdependently? Listening Reading Speaking Writing Language development is an integrated process
Receptive Skills Listing and Reading
Productive/Expressive Skills Speaking And Writing
What does QSSSA stand for? Question, Stem, Signal, Share, Assess
What level is this student? Little ability to understand English in simple conversations, slowing of speech, uses gestures, struggles with English vocab, remains silent when not comprehending, expands vocab through listening opportunities. Beginning Level
What level is this student? Increase in accuracy and fluency, comprehend simple and high frequency spoken English, still require ESL techniques in unfamiliar topics, may ask speaker to slow down repeat or rephrase Intermediate Level
What level is this student? Can comprehend grade level spoken English, able to create clarify critique and evaluate ideas and responses, need processing time and ESL techniques to support and comprehend some details and non modified info Advanced Level
What level is this student? Understands with very minimal support and with little need for processing time or ESL support, needs help with complex academics and in specialized language, comparable to native speakers in social and instructional contexts Advanced High Level
Competency 005 English literacy development Phonological awareness Vocabulary Transfer (L1)-(L2) First Language Development (L1)
Which English Proficiency level best describes the students writing? The Kannstation if America was writing in 1787. the kannstation had creating a three part for the government. The three parts are a congress president and supreme kourt. Intermediate Student is expressing limited comprehension (key words and general meaning) Short, simple sentences
Based on the writing what can the teacher do to best help the student? The Kannstation if America was writing in 1787. the kannstation had creating a three part for the government. The three parts are a congress president and supreme kourt. Providing him with sample stems that are more grammatically complex then the students sentences.
Which English Proficiency level best describes the students writing? I like going to school, I attended school in Cuba. In Cuba, I went to school during the day and I worked at night on homework. I went to school to learn English. I studyed hard. Advanced Shows some basic English Vocab and high-frequency words, most main points and most supporting ideas
Oral Language Development Speaking and listening to communicate meaning. before student learn to read, they acquire vocabulary by listening the others and practicing the pronunciation and usage of newly acquired words in natural conversation
What are some instructional delivery strategies pre-teaching key vocab, applying familiar concepts from students cultural backgrounds, applying prior learning experiences to new learners, using hands on media and technology
Competency 006 Content Area Learning Academic Language development Cross curricular achievement
Phonological Awareness The ability to recognize the sounds in spoken language and how they can be segmented (pulled apart)=, blended (put back together) and manipulated ( add, deleted,and substituted)
What is the recognition of oral language ( spoken language) that can be divided into smaller parts (sentence into words, word into syllable, and syllable into sounds or phonemes) Phonological Awareness
Alphabetic Principle It is the understanding that the sequence of letters (or graphemes) in written words represent the sequence of sounds ( or phonemes) in spoken word.
Print and Book Knowledge General knowledge of print and book concepts; parts of books, and function and directionality of text
Fluency A combination of rate and accuracy that includes prosody: expression, appropriate phrasing, and attention to punctuation.
Comprehension the understanding of what has been read to the student and what has been read by the student
Written Expression It is the expression of thought, feelings and ideas in written form.
Graphophonemic (visual) The shape of the letters (graphemes) , and the sounds (phonemes) that they evoke
Semantic student uses prior knowledge and experience to make sense of the content
Syntactic (structural) student uses knowledge of grammar to decide if a word is correct
Pragmatic What is the function of the text . what is the meabing of the text, what is the literary event? Languages cannot exist in isolation; it has a function, and a meaning within a context.
Communicated Input most be comprehensible
Sequenced Instruction must be linguistically, academically, and culturally accommodated
Scaffolded Support students' learning to achieve independently (ZPD)
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) The zone of proximal development in the distance between what children can do by themselves and the next learning that can be helped to achieve with competent assistance
Metacognitive Strategies (Why do I learn?) Prediction/Inferring Self-questioning Monitoring/Clarifying Evaluating Summarizing Visualizing
Cognitive Strategies ( How do I learn?) Rereading Highlighting Reading Aloud Taking Notes Mapping Information Talking to someone Finding Key Vocab Mnemonics
Social/Affective Strategies (Learning with others/interaction?) Interaction Questioning for Clarification Cooperative learning to solve problems Self-talk Group discussion
Competency 007 Using formal and informal assessment to plan and adapt instruction Tests for ELL student Law
Validity The validity of a test (measurement tool) is a degree to which the test measures what it claims to measure.
Reliability is the term for internal cohesiveness of a measure.
Cultural Bias Ignoring cultural differences and imposing, interpreting, and judging by standards inherent to the dominant culture
Assessments Evaluations based on a collection about what students know and are able to do. Data is collected, in different contexts and times.
What is a Home Language Survey? It helps to identify ELL students, the Texas administrative Code (TAC) requires districts to include two specific questions to ALL parents of new incoming students to the district.
"What language is spoken in your home most of the time?" and "What language does your child speak most of the time?" are examples of what? The Home Language Survey
If another language other than English is written in response to the Home Language Survey, what is the district required to do? If any other language is written than the district must test the new incoming student.
What test does Pre-K-1st graders that speak another language other than English take, and how long does the school have to administer the test to the student? Oral Language Proficiency Test (OLPT) During the first 4 weeks of school
What test does 2nd-12th graders that speak another language other than English take, and how long does the school have to administer the test to the student? The Oral Language Proficiency Test (OLPT) and the Norm Referenced Standardized Achievement Test ( English Reading and/or ELA Sections)
This recommends ELLs identification, placement, and exit in bilingual/ESL programs Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC)
How many times does the LPAC meet for each student once per year
Do all students in the ESL require parental permission YES
What do students have to do to exit the ESL/bilingual program? they must pass the ELA portion of the STAAR and have parental permission to exit
After existing the ESL/Bilingual program what happens? the LPAC follows the student for 2 years
Competency 008 ESL and Bilingual Programs Historical perspective
1974 Lau v. Nichols Supreme Court Identical education does not constitute equal education under the Civil Rights Act. Congress passed the Equal Educational Opportunity Act, extending the Lau decision to all schools.
1964 Civil Rights Act, Title VI Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in the operation of all federally assisted programs
1920's-1960's English immersion or "sink-or-swim" policies are dominant method of instruction of language. No remedial services are available, and students are generally retained until English is mastered to advance in subject areas.
1968 The Bilingual Education Act, Title VII The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) est. federal policy for bilingual education for economically disadvantaged language minority students, allocates funds for programs, recognizes the unique education disadvantage for non-English speakers
1981 Castaneda v. Pichard Federal Court Created a test to determine school district compliance with the Equal Educational Opportunities Act. Its a three part test: Theory: pursue programs on research. Practice: implement programs Results: do not persist in a program that does not work
1982 Plyler v. Doe Supreme Court Denies the state right to exclude the children of illegal immigrants from public school.
2001 The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III Federal Funding for English language learners (ELLs) and immigrates
When is a bilingual program required? When the district has 20 or more enrolled English language learners (ELLs) of the same language in the same grade level district wide, they shall offer a bilingual education program for ELLs in Pre-K-5th.6th grade only included when clustered with pre-k-5
This requires....ELLs in grades K-12 must be tested in English language proficiency annually in reading, writing, and speaking No Child Left Behind ACT
What provided funds for bilingual/ESL programs 1968 Bilingual Education Act
What established rules to determine when districts must implement ESL/bilingual programs Lau vs. Nichols Act 1974
Who is offered placement in an ESL program? Students that have dominance in any other language besides English
What program provides instruction in literacy and academic content areas through the medium of the students's first language, along with instruction in English oral and academic language development? Early Exit
What program is usually recommended for limited English speakers and the goal is to promote high levels of academic achievement and full academic language proficiency for both their first language and English. Late Exit
What is Late Exit( semi-additive) student? Its a student that is eligible to exit the program no earlier than 6 year or later than 7 years after student is enrolled in school.
What is an Early Exit(subtractive) student? Its a student that is eligible to exit the program no earlier than 2 years or later than 5 years after the student enrolls in school
What is Dual language immersion/ONE way? Only for students that are Limited English Proficient, instruction in both English and Spanish or any other language. and students are transferred to English- only instruction.
What is Dual Language immersion/TWO way? Its for students Proficient in English and students that are limited English Proficient, instruction in both English and Spanish or any other language, and transfers a student that has limited English in to English-only instruction
One Way Dual language ELs served both in English and native language, equal quantity of instruction on both languages
Two Way Dual Language ELs integrated with students proficient in English, equal quantity of instruction on both languages
When is an English as a Second Language (ESL) Program required? All ELL students that the district is not required to offer a bilingual program shall be provided an ESL program, regardless of student grade level, home language, and number of students
When determining what ESL and Bilingual/Dual Program to implement in a school district, what information is NOT important? The socioeconomic level of the ELL population
Self Contained ESL class A Program that has the ESL teacher teaching all subjects, and non- pull out instruction is used.
Pull-Out ESL class A program where a part-time ESL certified teacher provides ONLY English Languages art instruction for ELL students, the ELLs remain in the mainstream classroom for the other content areas (math, science, social studies, etc.)
Content-Based ESL class A program that is taught by a FULL-Time ESL certified teacher, instruction is integrated with subject matter instruction, that not only focuses on learning English as a second language but also uses (L2) as a vehicle to learn science, math, etc.
Competency 009 Cultural diversity Creating multicultural awareness environment in the classroom Eliminating cultural bias in the classroom
Instrumental Motivation Survival within the dominant group Making a living
Integrative Motivation Integration with the dominant group Meeting new people and new cultures
Subtraction Bilingualism (instrumental motivation) Is learning a second language at the cost of losing the first one. Since first language is one's emotional language, this type of bilingualism maybe detrimental to one;s whole being
Additive Bilingualism (integrative motivation) Is learning a second language while maintaining the first one
What in Bilingualism Two languages spoken by an individual
What is Diglossia Two dialects or languages used by a single language community
Multiculturalism Support of several distinct cultural or ethnic groups within a society
Cultural Assimilation Immigrants come to be culturally dominated by another society
Acculturation A process that occur when different individuals or groups of people meet and exchange aspects of their culture
According to the Commissioner's Rules teachers must support students by addressing what needs affective, cognitive, and linguistic
The greatest motivation for any students to learn a second language is the desire to live in fellowship with those individuals that speak that language affective support
Euphoria/Honeymoon students experience excitement about being in the new environment
Culture Shock students experience the intrusion of the new culture, depression, irritability, and difficulty in adjustment may occur
Recovery/Adjustment students experience acceptance or recovery from the initial culture shock. language proficiency increases and students feel more confident
Acceptance/Integration students experience either adaptation or assimilation of the new culture with renewed self confidence
Competency 10 Representation and advocacy Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) Parent communication Accessing community resources
Who serves on an LPAC on Bilingual Ed campuses? 4 members or more, campus administrator, 2 professional educators- 1 bilingual 1 ESL or gen ed, and a parent of a LEP ( not employed by district)
Who serves on an LPAC on ESL campuses 2 members or more- 1 or more professional personnel recommended that it be campus administrator and ESL teacher, parent of LEP student not employed by district
the LPAC checks for home language survey, assessments, standardized achievement test scores, classroom grades, number of years enrolled in school, mastery of TEKS
LPACs do determine identification of student as lep or nonlep, give written notice to parents, recommend program placement, collect documentation, ensure testing guidelines, monitor students after exiting
Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) This committee determines identification, placement and exit of special education students.
Site-Based Decision Making Committee (SBDM) This committee plans strategies and reviews policies for better student achievement each year.
affix bound morpheme that changes the meaning or function of a root word -- think prefix and suffix
false cognate word in another language that may have the same origin, but they will have different spellings, meanings, and pronunciation
partial cognate similar cognates in 2 languages with similar meanings, but are spelled different -- such as fragrance (English) vs. fragrancia (Spanish)
language register language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting - formal vs. intimate
air flow/constriction fricative vs. africative
bilabial both lips are together -- p, b, m
labiodental upper teeth are against the lower lip -- f, v
dental tongue is against or between the teeth -- th
nasal air is forced through your nose as you make the sound - -m, n, ng
aspiration puff of air when spoken -- p, t, k, ch
glide consonant characterized by a continued gliding motion of th emouth position into the vowel that comes after it -- w, j
What did Jim Cummins develop? professor from University of Toronto that developed BICS and CALP
Factors that affect L2 acquisition similarities between languages, learning styles, aptitude for languages, age, instructional preferences, time available, social conditions, and motivation
Krashen theory 95% of language is learned through normal everyday life; 5% of language is learned through formal explicit teaching -- Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
Monitor Theory acquisition, rather than learning, is the foundation of fluency in L2; L2 learners must be given time to think about correct use of language in order to monitor what they say or write
Created by: kierc
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