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Ch. 6 Muscles


Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes "crows feet" wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye
Orbicularis oris puckers the lips
Buccinator flattens the cheeks. Trumpeter's muscle
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Levator Labii Superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
Mastication chewing
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime move
Erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect.
Thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
Diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing. Dome-shaped muscle. Aids in breathing.
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. “Swimmer muscles”
Deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb
Triceps branchii extends the forearm. Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm.
Brachialis flexes forearm
Biceps brachii flexes the forearm. occupies the anterior compartment of the arm.
Brachioradialis flexes and supinate the forearm
Flexor carpi flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum extends the fingers
Gluteus maximus buttocks
Quadriceps femoris extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles
Sartorius “tailors muscle,” flexes the thigh
Hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh
Gastrocnemius form the calf muscle
Contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
Extensibility the ability to be stretched
Elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments. they resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together.
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments. they resemble bundles of minute golf clubs
motor neurons
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
ATP needed for energy for muscle contraction
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration without oxygen (more efficient)
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells.
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
isometric the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
isotonic the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes.
muscle tone muscle tome refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time.
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly.
slow- twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue.
origin the most stationary end of the muscle
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
tendinitis inscriptions cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations
peroneus the lateral muscles of the leg
myosin myofilaments anchored in the center or the sarcomere at a dark staining band called the M line
Acetylcholinesterase Acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cells
Sliding filament mechanism the sliding of a tin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
Threshold when a muscle fiber contracts maximally
lag phase the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
relaxation phase the time during which the muscle relaxes
What happens when an action potential reaches the nerve terminal? It causes the synaptic vesicles to release acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis
What happens during muscle contraction? Actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten.
What are the four major functional characteristics of skeletal muscle? Contractility, excitability, extensibility, elasticity
Myofibrils consist of what 2 major kinds of protein fibers? Actin myofilaments, Myosin myofilaments
Each ____ is a light area called an I band, it consists of actin. Z line.
How is a neuromuscular junction formed? It is formed by an englarged never twrminal destiny in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane.
What happens when an action potential reaches the nerve terminal? It causes the synaptic vesicles to release acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis.
What do muscles do? They help to produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temperature.
What are the two energy requirements? ATP, ADP
The myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the ____ sarcomere
During periods of inactivity as excess ATP is produced in the muscle cell, the energy contained in ATP is used to synthesize creatine phosphate
The point of attachment of each muscle are it’s ____ origin and insertion
Created by: pagriff3



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