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what are the four major functional characteristics of the skeletal muscle? contractility, excitability, extensibility, elasticity
a skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called? epimysium
what is another connective tissue located outside the epimysium? It surrounds and separates muscles fascia
A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called fasciculi, which are surrounded by loose connective tissue called? perimysium
single muscle cells are called ? fibers
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called? endomysium
The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with ? myofibrils
myofibrils consists of 2 major kinds of protein fibers called actin and myosin
thin myofilament is called actin
thick myofilament is called myosin
ability to shorten with force contractility
the capacity to respond to a stimulus excitability
the ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil elasticity
actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called _____ which are joined end to end to form myofibril sarcomeres
the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle sarcomere
each side of the Z line is a light area called ______, it consists of actin I band
extends the length of the myosin, it is the darker central region in each sarcomere A band
the center of each sarcomere is another light area, which consists of only myosin H band
the myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band called the M line
the charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
the brief reversal back of the charge action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
each branch that connects to the muscle forms neuromuscular junction, or synapse
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called motor unit
the enlarged nerve terminal is the presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber is postsynaptic terminal
how is a neuromuscular junction formed? by an enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane
a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus unit that stimulus reaches a level called threshold
time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the lag phase
the time of contraction contraction phase
time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
muscle remains contracted without relaxation tetany
where is ATP produced in the mitochondria
needed for energy for muscle contraction, and is short lived, and unstable ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
is it necessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP? yes
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen aerobic respiration
2 types of muscle contraction isometric, isotonic
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow twitch fibers
most stationary end of the muscle origin (head)
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
muscles can be named by location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontails
closes the eyelids and causes crows feet, wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
2 pair of pterygoids temporalis and masseter
changes the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
lateral neck muscle and prime mover sternocleidomastoid
group of muscles on each side of the back erector spinae
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
rotates scapula trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
adducts and flexes arm pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm latissimus dorsi
attached the numerus to the scapula and clavicle, major abductor of the upper limb deltoid
extends the forearm triceps brachii
flexes the forearm biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm brachioradialis
flexes the wrist flexor carpi
extends the wrist extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorum
extends the fingers extensor digitorum
how many muscles are in the hands 19
buttocks gluteus maximus
extends the leg quadriceps femoris
tailors muscle, flexes the thigh sartorius
posterior thigh muscles hamstring muscles
how many muscles are within the foot 20
Created by: bresaunders4



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