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muscles cells muscle fibers
buttocks gluteus maximus
chest muscle pectoral muscle
anterior thigh muscle quadriceps femoris
posterior thigh muscle hamstrings
back muscle latissimus dorsal
muscle responsible for smiling zygomaticus
muscle responsible for sneering levator labil superioris
muscle responsible for frowning depressor anguli oris
closes the eyelids orbicularis ocull
puckers the mouth orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
changes the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
moves the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
adenosine triphosphate ATP
the ability for the muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
ability for the muscle to contract contractility
the ability for the muscle to recoil to it's original length elasticity
the ability for the muscle to extend extendibility
the connective tissue sheath that is directly upon the whole muscle epimysium
Surrounded by loose connective tissue Perimysium
Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath Endomysium
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units Sarcomeres
The charge difference across the membrane Resting membrane potential
The brief reversal back of the charge Action potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to each skeletal fiber Motor neurons
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers innverates Motor unit
The enlarged nerve terminal Presynaptic terminalthe
The space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the Synaptic cleft
Each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles that secrete a neurotransmitter Acetylcholine
The acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between between the neuron and muscle fell is rapidly broken down by enzymes Acetylcholinesterase
The sliding of a tin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction Sliding filament mechanism
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers Muscle twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level Threshold
The time between the application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction Lag phase
The time of contraction Contraction phase
Muscle relaxes Relaxation phase
The muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated Recruitment
Adenosine diphosphate ADP
When at rest they can’t stockpile ATP but they can store high-energy molecule Creative phosphate
Without oxygen Anaerobic respiration
With oxygen Aerobic respiration
The amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate in muscle cells Oxygen debt
ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells Muscle fatigue
The length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process Isometric
The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle change Isotonic
Constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long period of times Muscle tone
Contract quickly and fatigue quickly Fast-twitch fibers
Contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue Slow-twitch fibers
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another Anatagonists
Raises the eyebrows Occipitofrontalis
Neck muscle Sternocleidomastoid
Trunk muscle Erector spinae
Muscles that move the thorax Thoracic muscles
Flex and rotate the vertebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold in the abdominal viscera Abdominal wall muscles
Tendinous area of the abdominal wall, consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle Linea Alba
On each side of the linea alba Rectus abdominis
Cross the rectus abdominis at 3 or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well-muscled person to appear segmented Tendinous inscription
Rotates scapula Trapezius
Pulls the scapula anteriorly Serratus anterior
Adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
“Swimmer muscles” Latissimus dorsi
Attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb Deltoid
Extends the forearm Triceps brachii
Flexes the forearm Biceps brachii
Flexes forearm Brachialis
Flexescand supinates the forearm Brachioradialis
Strong band of fibrous connective tissue Retinaculum
Flexes the wrist Flexor carpi
Extends the wrist Extensor carpi
Flexes the fingers Flexor digitorum
Extends the fingers Extensor digitorum
19 hand muscles Intrinisic hand muscle
Extends the legs Quadriceps femoris
Flexes the thigh Sartorius
Form the calf muscles Gastrocnemius and soleus
Flexes the foot and toes Calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon)
The lateral muscles of the leg Peroneus
20 muscles located within the foot Intrinsic foot
Created by: knharri2