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Chapter 6 Muscles

the ability of a skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
the capacity of a skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
the ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
connective tissue sheath that surrounds each skeletal muscle epimysium
connective tissue located outside of the epimysium fascia
loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fasciculi perimysium
connective tissue sheath that surrounds each muscle fiber endomysium
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other; fills the cytoplasm of each fiber myofibrils
thin myofilaments; resemble two minute strands of pearls twisted together actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments; resemble bundles of minute golf clubs myosin myofilaments
formed by actin and myosin myofilaments; sarcomeres
the charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
a single motor neuron and all skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
the time between the application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
the time of contraction contraction phase
the time when the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
the increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction; produced in the mitochondria ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than is can be produced in muscle cells muscle fatigue
2 types of muscle contractions isometric and isotonic
the constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time; keeps head up and back straight muscle tone
head of muscle; ; most stationary end origin
the end of te muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes the eyebrows and causes crows feet in the corners of eyes orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks; trumpeters muscle buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
chewing mastication
4 pairs of masication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
change shape of the tongue Intrinsic Tongue Muscles
move the tongue Extrinsic Tongue Muscles
lateral neck muscle and prime mover; rotates and abducts the head Sternocleidomastoid
group of muscles on each side of the back; responsible for keeping back straight and the body erect erector spinae
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration Internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing; dome shaped muscle; aids in breathing Diaphragm
rotates scapula Trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus Anterior
medially rotates, abducts, and powerfully extends the arm latissimus dorsi
abducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of hte upper limb deltoid
extends the forearm; occupies the posterior compartment of the arm Triceps brachii
flexes the forearm; occupies the anterior compartment of the arm Biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm Brachioradialis
strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so they don't "bowstring" during muscle contraction Retinaculum (bracelet)
flexes the wrist Flexor carpi
extends the wrist Extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorum
extends the fingers extensor digitorum
19 muscles located within the hand Intrinsic hand muscles
located between the metacarpals; responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers. Interossi muscles
buttocks; contributes most of the mass of the buttocks Gluteus Maximus
hip muscle and common injection site Gluteus medius
extends the leg; anterior to thigh muscles Quadriceps femoris
"tailors muscle"; flexes the thigh sartorious
posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh Hamstring muscles
forms the calf muscle; join to form calceneal tendon; flex the foot and toes Gastrocnemius and soleus
20 muscles located within the foot; flex extend, abduct, and adduct the toes Itrinsic toes
ATP Adenosine triphophate
Created by: sarahkm711



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