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ch6 muscles

eastham

QuestionAnswer
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows.
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes “crows feet” wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye.
Orbicularis oris puckers the lips.
Buccinator flattens the cheeks. Trumpeter’s muscle.
Orbicularis oris and buccinator are the kissing muscles
Zygomaticus smiling muscle.
Levator labii superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
Mastication chewing
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles move the tongue.
Sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover. Rotates and abducts the head
Erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect
Most involved in breathing External intercostals, Internal intercostals, Diaphragm
External intercostals, Internal intercostals, Diaphragm Most involved in breathing
External intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration.
Internal intercostals contract during forced expiration.
Diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing. Dome-shaped muscle. Aids in breathing.
Abdominal wall muscles The muscles of the anterior abdominal wall flex and rotate the vertebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold in the abdominal viscera.
linea alba tendinous area of the abdominal wall
On each side of the linea alba rectus abdominis muscle
Tendinous inscriptions cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well-muscled person to appear segmented.
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
The arm is attached to the thorax pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. “Swimmer muscles”
Deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb.
Triceps brachii extends the forearm. Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm.
Biceps brachii flexes the forearm. Occupies the anterior compartment of the arm.
Brachialis flexes forearm
Brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
Retinaculum (bracelet) strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so that they do not “bowstring” during muscle contraction.
Flexor carpi flexes the wrist.
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers.
Extensor digitorum extends the fingers
19 hand muscles located within the hand intrinsic hand muscles
Interossi muscles, located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers
Gluteus maximus buttocks. Contributes most of the mass of the buttocks. Gluteus medius, hip muscle and common injection site.
Quadriceps femoris extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles
Sartorius “tailors muscle”; flexes the thigh
Hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh.
Gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf muscle. They join to form the calcaneal tendon
Achilles tendon Flex the foot and toes
The lateral muscles of the leg peroneus
20 muscles located within the foot intrinsic foot muscles
Contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
Extensibility the ability to be stretched
Elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the epimysium
Fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium. It surrounds and separates muscles
A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi (fascicle), which are surrounded by loose connective tissue called the perimysium
4. The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called fibers
5. Each muscle fiber is a single cylindrical cell containing several nuclei. endomysium.
6. Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the endomysium.
7. The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with myofibrils- a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other.
a. actin myofilaments together thin myofilaments. They resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted.
b. myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments. They resemble bundles of minute golf clubs
9. Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called sarcomeres
the basic structural and functional unit of the muscle. sarcomere
1. The outside of most cell membranes is positively charged compared to the inside of the cell membrane, which is negatively charged. The charge difference across the membrane is called the resting membrane potential.
2. When a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly. The brief reversal back of the charge is called action potential.
1. Motor neurons are nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
2. Axons enter the muscles and branch. Each branch that connects to the muscle forms a neuromusclular junction,
3. A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called a motor unit
5. The enlarged nerve terminal is the presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the synaptic cleft and the muscle fiber is the postsynaptic terminal
6. Each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
2. The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is called the sliding filament mechanism
3. Muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
4. A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called 4. Threshold
5. The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the lag phase
6. The time of contraction is the contraction phase
7. The time during which the muscle relaxes is the relaxation phase
9. Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing.
10. The increase in number of motor units being activated is called recruitment
4. It is necessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP. When at rest they can’t stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule, called creatine phosphate
6. Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
Created by: handrew10