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eastham muscles

contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility the ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the__________ epimysium
fascia is another connective tissue located outside the epimysium
a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi, which are surrounded by loose connective tissue called ___________ perimysium
the fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called ______ fibers
each muscle fiber is a ______ cylindrical cell containing several nuclei single
each fiber is surrounded by a connective issue sheath called the ________ endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with ________ - a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other myofibrils
myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers actin myofilaments & myosin myofilaments
actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called _____, which are joined end to end to form the myofibril sacromeres
The __________ is the basic structural and functional unity of muscle sacromere
Resting Membrane Potential (RMP) charge difference across the membrane
Action Potential (AP) brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
neuronmuscular junction or synapse the link between an axon terminal and a muscle fiber and is near the center of the cell
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates
the enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal, the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
Each presynaptic terminal contains ___________, which secrete a neurotransmitter called__________. synaptic vesicles, acetylcholine
The acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and the muscle cell is rapidly broken down by enzymes or __________ acetylcholinesterase
sliding filament mechanism the sliding of actin and myofilaments past myson myofilaments during contraction
muscle twitch contraction of a whole muscle in response to a single stimulus
Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
all-or-none response A phenomenon at which point the muscle fiber will contract maximally.
The time between application of the stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of contraction is called the _____ phase. lag
the time of contraction contraction phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes relation phase
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
the increase in number of motor units being activated is called________. Recruitment
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
ATP is produced in the _______ mitochondria
ATP is short-lived and degenerates to the more stable ______. ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and phosphate
A high-energy molecule stored by muscle cells creatine phosphate
anaerobic respiration Does not use oxygen
Aerobic uses oxygen
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen required after physical exercise to convert accumulated lactic acid to glucose
muscle fatigue Results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced.
Isometric equal distance
Isometric (equal distance) the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process.
Isotonic equal tension
isotonic (equal tension) the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes.
muscle tone refers to the constant tension produced by the muscles of the body for long periods of time. Keeps head up and back straight.
fast-twitch fibers Contract quickly and fatigue quickly. Well adapted to perform anaerobic metabolism.
slow twitch fibers Contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue. Better suited for aerobic metabolism.
occipitofrontalis raise the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes wrinkles in the corners of the eyes
orbicularis oris puckers the lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
orbicularis oris & buccinator kissing muscles
zygomaticus smiling muscles
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape of the tongue
extrinsic tongue muscles move the tongue
sternocleidomastoid rotates and abducts the head
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back
thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
external intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
internal intercostals contact during forced expiration
diaphragm dome-shaped muscle, accomplishes quiet breathing
linea alba tendinous area or the abdominal wall
abdominal wall muscles flex and rotate the vertebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold in the abdominal viscera
rectus abdominis on each side of the linea alba
tendinous inscriptions cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations
trapezis rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi medially rotates, abducts, and powerfully extends the arm.
deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is a major abductor of the upper limb
triceps brachii extends the forearm. occupies the posterior compartment of the arm
biceps brachii flexes the forearm. occupies the anterior compartment of the arm
Created by: gtoliver



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