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Muscular System

What is the function of the muscle system? Attach to bones to provide movement, produce heat and energy for the body, and maintain posture as well as body position.
Another name for the muscular system Musculoskeletal system.
How many muscles? More than 600 muscles. (640-650)
Four characteristics of muscles include: Excitability-irritability, the ability to respond to stimulus like nerve impulse Contractibility-Muscles fibers stimulated by nerves contract, causing movement Extensibility-Ability to be stretched Elasticity- Original shape after contract/stretched.
Three types of muscles and where are they located? Skeletal (striated) muscled tissue is found attached to the bones. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart and contracts to circulate blood. Visceral/smooth muscle tissue is found in the internal organs.
Flexion Decreases angle of joint and brings two bones closer together.
Extension Opposite of flexion.
Rotation Movement of a bone in longitudinal axis, shaking head no.
Abduction Movement away from the midline
Adduction Movement towards the midline.
Circumduction Movement in a circular motion.
Supination Specific movements of hands or feet, to rate the limb toward the outside or hands facing upward (movement of the forearm).
Pronation Specific movements of hands or feet, to rotate the limb toward the inside or hands facing downward ( movement of the forearm).
Movement is.. attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone.
Muscles are... attached to at least two points (work in pairs)
Origin The part of the muscle that is attached to a fixed structure/bone.
Insertion The part of muscle attached to a. movable part of the part.
Prime mover muscle with thee major responsibility for a certain movement.
Antagonist muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover (biceps and triceps).
Muscle tone Muscles are always in a state of slight contraction and ready to pull.
Muscles can _ but CANNOT _. pull/push
When a muscle is fatigued, it is unable too.. contract
The common reason for muscle fatigue is.. oxygen debt
Dorsiflexion Bending backward or bending the foot toward the knee.
Plantar Flexion Bending forward or bending the foot away from the knee.
Myasthenia Gravis Chronic condition where nerve impulses are not properly transmitted to the muscles creating abnormal weakness of certain muscle. Men over 60 and women under 40 are at higher risk.
Fibromyalgia Widespread muscle pain and tenderness. It's a chronic disease and is often accompanied by fatigue and altered sleep, memory, and mood. Females are more likely to suffer from this condition.
Strain Overstretched, torn, or twisted tendon or muscle. It involves an injury to a muscle or the band of tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone.
Sprain A stretching or tearing of ligaments. It injures the bands of tissue that connects two bones together.
RICE Rest Ice to reduce swelling Compression Elevation
Muscle spasms or cramps Sudden, painful, involuntary muscle contractions resulting from exertion, low electrolyte levels, or poor circulation.
Shin splints Pain and tenderness along or just behind the inner edge of the tibia, the large bone in the lower leg. Also known as medial tibial stress syndrome, usually develops after physical activity, such as vigorous exercise or sports.
Contracture A fixed tightening of muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin. It prevents normal movement of the associated body part. An injury such as a severe burn can cause contracture of the skin. The skin becomes scarred and nonelastic.
Tetanus Infection caused by bacteria called Clostridium tetanus. When the bacteria invade the body, they produce a poison that causes painful muscle contractions. It causes "lockjaw". It makes it hard to open mouth and/or swallow.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy A genetic disease which causes rapid weakness and eating of muscles. Males are more likely to develop symptoms than are women. Occurs in 0.3% of male infants in the population.
AMB Ambulate
IM Intramuscular
Asthenia, asthen Weakening
Desis To bind, tie together.
My/o Muscle
Ten/o Tendon
Ton/o Tone, tension, or stretching
Flex/o Bend
Plegia Paralysis
Frontalis Location: On either side of the forehead. Function: Cover and protect the skull.
Nasalis Location: Found over nasal bone. Function: Closes and opens the nasal openings.
Zygomaticus Major Location: Corner of the mouth. Function: Raises corner of the mouth.
Orbicularis Oculi Location: Eye orbit. Function: Closes the eyelid.
Trapezius Location: Large triangular muscle located on the upper surface of the back. Function: Moves the shoulder, extends the head.
Sternocleidomastoid Location: Large muscle extending diagonally down the sides of the neck. Function: Flexes head, rotates head.
Deltoid Location: Thick triangular muscle that corners the shoulder joint. Function: Abducts the upper arm.
Triceps Bronchii Location: Posterior arm to ulna. Function: Extends the lower arm.
Pectoralis Major Location: Part of the chest. Function: Flexes the upper arm.
Biceps Brochii Location: upper arm radius. Function: Flexes the lower arm.
Rectus Abdominis Location: Located in the front of the body. Function: The muscle is activated while doing crunches because it pulls the ribs and pelvis in and curves the back.
External oblique Location: Lateral and anterior sheet like abdominal muscles. Function: Flexes vertebral column and compresses abdomen.
Internal Oblique Location: Abdominal muscles deep to external oblique. Function: Bilateral contraction flexes vertebral column and compresses abdomen.
Diaphragm Location: Extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity. Function: Responsible for breathing.
Sartorius Muscle Location: Diagonal from anterior superior iliac spine to medial surface of tibia. Function: Flexes leg and flexes abducts and rotates thigh.
Tibalis anterior Location: Originates in the upper two thirds of the lateral surface of the tibia. Function: Flexes the foot and supports the heel.
Gluteus Maximus Location: Each sides of the hips. Function: Extends femur.
Gastrocnemius Location: Calf muscle. Function: Flexes the lower leg.
Soleus Location: A flat muscle that’s beneath the Gastrocnemius. Function: Extends foot.
Calcaneal Location: Heel. Function: This tendon connects the calf muscle to the heel bone.
Which types of major muscles are voluntary/involuntary? Name them Voluntary: Skeletal muscle. Involuntary: Cardiac muscle and visceral/smooth muscles.
What is one characteristic of cardiac muscle that differentiates it from any other muscle in the human body? It contains intercalated discs.
Main cardiac muscle Myocardium
What are skeletal muscles attached to? Tendons
Which major muscle group makes up about 40% of the body’s total mass? Skeletal muscle group
What is the main function of the diaphragm? Main muscle of respiration. Contraction of the diaphragm muscle expands the lungs during inspiration when one is breathing air in.
Created by: NataliaO



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