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Psych development

CH 12 Social and cultural constraints

QuestionAnswer
sociocultural constraints When social or cultural factors influence the types of physical activity in which people get involved
ecological perspective believes believe that social and cultural influences (in the form of environmental constraints) may greatly influence and interact with individual and task constraints
Sociocultural attitudes of groups of people either encourage or discourage certain motor behaviors If such attitudes are pervasive enough... they can modify someone’s behavior
Title XI -requiring equal opportunity for girls and women in sport -in 1972 drastically changed the landscape of sport in the US, making it more possible and, in time, socially acceptable for girls and women to participate in sport
Sociocultural elements that all direct one’s future movement behavior gender, race, religion, and national origin, & the media encourage and promote different types of physical activities (e.g., those that are gender specific) to mass audiences
Social and Cultural Influences as Environmental Constraints key point: Societal and cultural beliefs, attitudes, and stereotypes can encourage or discourage motor behaviors
socialization process The process by which one learns a social role in groups with certain values, morals, and rules
Socializing agents family, peers, coaches, teachers
Social situations Game, play environment, toys
Personal attributes Strength, Skill, Motivation, perceived
sex refers to biological characteristics used to determine whether individuals are classified as male or female
gender refers to culturally defined sociological characteristics used to differentiate between males and females
Gender typing typing occurs when a parent or significant other encourages activities that are deemed “gender appropriate"
Certain sports are identified as masculine football, baseball, and wrestling
Certain Sports are identified as feminine figure skating, gymnastics, and field hockey
Westerners consider sport to be important and appropriate for boys; but not for girls
girls still make up less than half the overall number of participants in high school sports
For girls limited involvement and practice may not allow them to develop their motor skills to their full potential
Boys involvement feel forced into participating in gender-appropriate sports they dislike and may drop out of physical activity altogether rather than be subjected to participating in an undesired but gender-typed sport
stereotyped influences (gender) What appear to be fitness or skill differences in boys and girls based on physiological makeup (sex)
What happens to girls who defy gender-role stereotypes? early “masculine” experiences may have encouraged them to participate in athletics and physical activities
Family Members -the only source of social interaction that an infant has and therefore the primary source of social constraints -They reinforce behaviors deemed appropriate through their gestures, praise, and rewards; at the same time, they punish bad behaviors
Family Members – Parents -Encourage children to engage in either physical or sedentary activities. This may relate to the participation habits of the parent -The best predictor of adult sport involvement is participation during childhood & adolescence
same-sex parent is most influential in the extent of that child’s sport involvement
Mothers sport role models for their daughters
Fathers more strictly reinforce gender-appropriate behavior, which would include sport participation for boys
Family Members – Siblings form an infant’s first playgroup and thus may act as important socialization agents into PA
Cliques more formalized peer groups
Significant Others - Peers stronger influence for participation in team sports than for participation in individual sports during childhood and adolescence
Significant others - Adult peers women, and particularly after marriage, spouses and friends of the opposite sex become more influential in either encouraging or discouraging involvement in certain activities
If previous peer group was sport-oriented likely ____ in sport involvement
Key point: An individual’s peer group may either encourage or discourage physical activities. As socializing agents, peer groups can be as important as family
Male Athletes coaches/teachers influenced both their participation in and their selection of sports, particularly when they were adolescents and young adults
Female athletes teachers and coaches influenced them during childhood and adolescence
Aversive socialization when teachers or coaches embarrass children in front of their peers, overemphasize performance criteria at the expense of learning and enjoyment, or plan class activities that result in overwhelming failure rather than success
Significant Others: coaches ad teachers Key point It is essential that coaches and teachers understand their potential influence in promoting or deterring PA participation among their athletes and students
Children who grow up in urban areas with limited play space typically exposed to sports and activities that require little space and equipment (e.g., basketball)
Colder climates provide children with an opportunity to learn ice skating
warmer climates encourage swimming
Play environment also act as a sociocultural constraint, especially if the play space is gender-associated (jumping rope = feminine)
Traditional Boys’ games complex and involve the use of strategy; participants are encouraged to work hard in pursuit of specific goals and to use negotiation to settle disputes over rules
Traditional girls’ games non-competitive, and rather than encouraging interdependence among group members, they involve waiting for turns to perform simple repetitive tasks, such as jumping rope or playing hopscotch
Gender typing through toys has been shown to be Slow to change
Created by: rmart11
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