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P Mylin Study Stack

Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
calc/o calcium
crin/o secrete
gluc/o sugar, sweetness
glyc/o sugar, sweetness
glycos/o sugar, sweetness
home/o same, alike
kal/i potassium ( an electrolyte)
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
thym/o thymus gland
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
toxic/o poison
-crine secrete
-dipsia thirst
-gen forming, producing, origin
-toxic poison
-uria urine
eu- good, normal
exo- outside, outward
hyper- excessive, above normal
hypo- under, below
poly- many, much
Chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a gradual, marked enlargement and thickening of the bones of the face and jaw acromegaly
Increased formation and secretion of urine diuresis
Hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells glucagon
Simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion glucose
Presence of glucose in the urine or abnormal amount of sugar in the urine glycosuria
Multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball) Graves disease
Escessive distribution of body hair, especially in women hirsutism
Excessive amount of calcium in the blood hypercalcemia
Excessive amount of potassium in the blood hyperkalemia
Abnormal increase in the volume of circulating fluid (plasma)in the body hypervolemia
Abnormal condition of low sodium in the blood hyponatremia
Tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas insulinoma
Excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight obesity
Body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight morbid obesity
Total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity panhypopituitarism
Small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla pheochromocytoma
Crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of increased amount of thyroid hormone; also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis thyroid storm
Masculine or having characteristics of a man virile
Masculinization in a woman or development of male secondary sex characteristics in the woman virilism
Test that measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos) as seen in Graves disease exophthalmometry
Test that measures the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a standard dose of glucose and measuring glucose levels in the blood and urine at regular intervals glucose tolerance test (GTT)
Test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function thyroid function test (TFT)
Administration of radioactive iodine (RAI) orally or intravenously (IV) as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood radioactive iodine uptake
After injection of a radioactive substance, a scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland thyroid scan
Excision of the thymus gland thymectomy
Excision of the thyroid gland thyroidectomy
Method of choice for removing a fibrous, nodular thyroid partial thyroidectomy
Removal of most of the thyroid to relieve hyperthyroidism subtotal thyroidectomy
Reduce or control excretion of urine antidiuretics
Treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3, and T4 hormone antithyroids
Replace hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) corticosteroids
Increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults growth hormone replacements
Lower blood glucose by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to glycogen (a starch-storage form of glucose) insulins
Treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin oral antidiabetics
Replace or supplement thyroid hormones thyroid supplements
Adrenal cortex - promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, especially cortisol (Hypersecretion causes Cushing's disease) adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)
Ovaries - in females, stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogenTestes - in males, stimulates sperm production (Hyposecretion-failure of sexual maturation) Follicle-stimulating (FSH)
Bone, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues - stimulates somatic growth; increase use of fats for energy Growth hormone (GH) somatotropin
Ovaries - in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and progesteroneTestes - in males, promotes secretion of testosterone Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Breast - in conjunction with other hormones, promotes lactation Prolactin
Thyroid gland - stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone (Hypersecretion - Graves disease) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
calc/o calcium
crin/o secrete
gluc/o sugar, sweetness
glyc/o sugar, sweetness
glycos/o sugar, sweetness
home/o same, alike
kal/i potassium ( an electrolyte)
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
thym/o thymus gland
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
toxic/o poison
-crine secrete
-dipsia thirst
-gen forming, producing, origin
-toxic poison
-uria urine
eu- good, normal
exo- outside, outward
hyper- excessive, above normal
hypo- under, below
poly- many, much
Chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a gradual, marked enlargement and thickening of the bones of the face and jaw acromegaly
Increased formation and secretion of urine diuresis
Hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells glucagon
Simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion glucose
Presence of glucose in the urine or abnormal amount of sugar in the urine glycosuria
Multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball) Graves disease
Escessive distribution of body hair, especially in women hirsutism
Excessive amount of calcium in the blood hypercalcemia
Excessive amount of potassium in the blood hyperkalemia
Abnormal increase in the volume of circulating fluid (plasma)in the body hypervolemia
Abnormal condition of low sodium in the blood hyponatremia
Tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas insulinoma
Excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight obesity
Body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight morbid obesity
Total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity panhypopituitarism
Small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla pheochromocytoma
Crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of increased amount of thyroid hormone; also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis thyroid storm
Masculine or having characteristics of a man virile
Masculinization in a woman or development of male secondary sex characteristics in the woman virilism
Test that measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos) as seen in Graves disease exophthalmometry
Test that measures the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a standard dose of glucose and measuring glucose levels in the blood and urine at regular intervals glucose tolerance test (GTT)
Test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function thyroid function test (TFT)
Administration of radioactive iodine (RAI) orally or intravenously (IV) as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood radioactive iodine uptake
After injection of a radioactive substance, a scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland thyroid scan
Excision of the thymus gland thymectomy
Excision of the thyroid gland thyroidectomy
Method of choice for removing a fibrous, nodular thyroid partial thyroidectomy
Removal of most of the thyroid to relieve hyperthyroidism subtotal thyroidectomy
Reduce or control excretion of urine antidiuretics
Treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3, and T4 hormone antithyroids
Replace hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) corticosteroids
Increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults growth hormone replacements
Lower blood glucose by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to glycogen (a starch-storage form of glucose) insulins
Treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin oral antidiabetics
Replace or supplement thyroid hormones thyroid supplements
Adrenal cortex - promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, especially cortisol (Hypersecretion causes Cushing's disease) adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)
Ovaries - in females, stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogenTestes - in males, stimulates sperm production (Hyposecretion-failure of sexual maturation) Follicle-stimulating (FSH)
Bone, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues - stimulates somatic growth; increase use of fats for energy Growth hormone (GH) somatotropin
Ovaries - in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and progesteroneTestes - in males, promotes secretion of testosterone Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Breast - in conjunction with other hormones, promotes lactation Prolactin
Thyroid gland - stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone (Hypersecretion - Graves disease) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Kidney - increases water reabsorption (water returns to blood) Antidiuretic hormoce (ADH)
Uterus - stimulates uterine contractions; initiates laborBreast - promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands Oxytocin
Regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone; secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis Calcitonin
Increases energy production from all food types Thyroxine (T4)
Increases rate of protein synthesis triidothyronine (T3)
Bones - increases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood; Kidneys - increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion; Small intestine - increases absorption of calcium and phosphate Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Body cells - promote gluconogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; and helps depress inflammatory and immune responses Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)Hyposecretion - Addison's DiseaseHypersecretion - Cushing syndrome
Kidneys - increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium in the kidneys MineralocorticoidsHyposecretion - Addison's DiseaseHypersecretion - aldosteronism
In females, possible responsible for female libido and source of estrogen after menopause (otherwise, effects in adults are insignificant) Sex hormones (any of the androgens, estrogens, or related steroid hormones) produced by the ovaries, testes and adrenal cortices
Sympathetic nervous system target organs - hormone effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation (sympathomimetic), increase metabolic and heart rate, and raise blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Liver and blood - raises blood glucose level by accelerating conversion of glycogen into glucose in the liver (glycogenolysis) and other nutrients into glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis) and releasing glucose into blood (glycogen to glucose) Glucagon
Tissue cells - lowers blood glucose level by accelerating glucose transsport into cells and the use of that glucose for energy production (glucose to glycogen) Insulin
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
BMI body mass index
BMR basal metabolic rate
DI diabetes insipidus; diagnostic imaging
DKA diabetic ketoacidosis
DM diabetes mellitus
FSH follicle stimulating hormone
GH growth hormone
HRT hormone replacement therapy
K potassium
LH luteinizing hormone
md/dl, mg/dL milligrams per deciliter
MSH melanocyte-stimulating hormone
NPH neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
PBI protein bound iodine
PRL prolactin
PGH parathyroid hormone; also called parathromone
RAI radioactive iodine
RAIU radioactive iodine uptake
T3 triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone)
T4 thyroxine (thyroid hormone)
TFT thyroid function test
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
Created by: pmylin