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BSC 105 Muscles

ability to shorten with force? contractility
capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus? excitability
ability to be stretched? extensibility
ability to recoil to original resting length after being stretched? elasticity
muscles help produce what and for what reason? heat, maintenance of normal body temperature
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by what? epimysium
what is another connective tissue that separates and surrounds muscles? fascia
a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called what? fasciculi
the fasciculi is surrounded by what? perimysium
the fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called what? fibers
each fiber is surrounded by what? endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with what? myofibrils
thin myofliaments actin
thick myofilaments myosin
myofilaments form highly ordered units called what? sarcomeres
what is the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle? sarcromere
what kind of appearance does the arrangement of actin and myosin give? banded
what is the light area on each side of the Z line called? I Band
what does the I Band consist of? actin
what is the darker central region of the sarcomere? A Band
what does the A Band consist of? myosin
what is in the center of the sarcomere? H Zone
what does the H Zone consist of? myosin
what kind of charge do the outside cell membranes have? positive
what kind of charge do the inside cell membranes have? negative
what is the charge difference across the membrane called? resting membrane potential
what is the brief reversal back of charge called? action potential
nerves that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers? motor neurons
each Z line is an attachment site for what? actin
each branch of axons that connects to the muscle forms a what? neuromuscular junction
what is another word for neuromuscular junction? synapse
where is a synapse located? near the center of the cell
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called a what? motor unit
many motor units form a what? muscle
a neuromuscular junction is formed by what? an enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indention of the muscle cell membrane
the enlarged nerve terminal is called a what? presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is called the what? synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber is called the what? postsynaptic terminal
each presynaptic terminal contains what? synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete what? a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
what is the enzyme that breaks down the acetylcholine between the neuron and muscle cell is called what? acetylcholinesterase
what causes sarcromeres to shorten? actin and myosin myofilaments sliding past each other
what is the sliding of myofilaments called? sliding filament mechanism
which 2 bands shorten? the H and I bands
which band does not change in length? A band
what is a muscle twitch? the contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
the muscle fiber will not respond to a stimulus unless it reaches a certain point called a what? threshold
what is this phenomenon called? all-or-nothing response
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of the contraction is called the what phase? lag phase
the time of contraction is called the what phase? contraction phase
the time during while the muscle relaxes is called the what phase? relaxation phase
what is it called when the muscles don't have time to fully relax tetany
the increase of motor units being used is called what? recruitment
acetylcholine diffuses across the what? synaptic cleft
what does acetylcholine bind to? postsynaptic terminal
myosin myofilaments are anchored where? center of the sarcromere
what is the dark stained band holding myosin myofilaments called? M Line
each sarcromere extends from what to what? Z Line to Z Line
(T/F) when a muscle cell is stimulated, the membrane characteristics change briefly. true
what is needed for energy for muscle contraction? ATP
what is produced in the mitochondria? ATP
what does ATP degenerate to? ADP
what is the other high-energy molecule muscle cells can store? creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen aerobic respiration
what is the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions called? oxygen debt
what is it called when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells? muscle fatigue
the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases (equal distance) isometric
the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of muscle changes (equal tension) isotonic
what is the constant tension produced by muscles called? muscle tone
contract and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
what are the points of attachment on each muscle? origin and insertion
stationary end of muscle origin
end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
portion of muscle between origin and insertion belly
(T/F) all muscles only have one origin false
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are called what? synergists
muscles that work in opposition of each other are called what? antagonists
what is the muscle called that plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement? prime mover
what are some ways that muscles can be named? location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes the eyelids orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
what are the kissing muscles? orbicularis oris and buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering muscle levator labii superioris
frowning muscle depressor anguli oris
what is another name for chewing? mastication
how many pairs of mastication muscles? 4
what are the 4 pairs of mastication muscles? 2 pairs of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
changes the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
lateral neck muscle and prime mover sternocleidomastoid
group of muscles on each side of the back erector spine
most involved in breathing external and internal intercostals
elevates the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
what do the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall do? flex and rotate the vertebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold in the abdominal viscera
the tendinous area of the abdominal wall is called what? linea alba
on each side of the linea alba is the what? rectus abdominis
what crosses the rectus abdominus at three or more locations? tendinous inscriptions
what three muscles are lateral to the rectus abdominus? external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, transverses abdominis muscles
rotates scapula trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
the arm is attached to the thorax by what? pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles
adducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arms latissimus dorsi
attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle deltoid
extends the forearm; occupies the posterior compartment of the arm triceps brachii
flexes the forearm; occupies the anterior compartment of the arm biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm brachioradialis
strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extension tendons retinaculum
flexes the wrist flexor carpi
extends the wrist extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorium
extends the fingers extensor digitorium
19 hand muscles called the what? intrinsic hand muscles
what muscles, that are located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers? interossi
buttocks gluteus maximus
hip muscle and common injection site gluteus meduis
extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles quadriceps femoris
flexes the thigh sartorius
posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh hamstring muscles
form the calf muscle gastrocnemius and soleus
what do they form to join? calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon)
what are the lateral muscles of the leg called? peroneus muscles
20 muscles located in the foot are called? intrinsic foot muscles
what do the intrinsic foot muscles do? flex, extend, abduct, and adduct the toes
what does the Achilles tendon do? flex the foot and toes
what are the 2 scapular movements? trapezius and serratus anterior
what does the retinaculum do? holds the flexor and extensor tendons together in place around the wrist so that they do now "bowstring" during muscle contraction
what role do the peroneus muscles play? primary everters
what do the peroneus muscles do? turn the lateral side od the foot outward, aid in plantar flexion
Created by: arwilson2



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