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Blood vessels, immune system, respiratory system

Immunity response to disease 2 intrinsic systems Innate defense Adaptive defense
Innate Defense System nonspecific response made up of two lines of defense
First line of Innate Defense external body membranes (skin and mucosae)
Second line of Innate Defense antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells Inhibit spread of invaders Inflammation is its most important mechanism
Innate and Adaptive defenses are deeply interwoven TRUE
Adaptive Defense System specific response 3rd line of defense
Third Line of defense (Adaptive) attacks particular foreign substances Takes longer to react than the innate system
Internal Defenses Phagocytes NK cells Inflammation Antimicrobial proteins Fever
Humoral Immunity B cells
Cellular Immunity T cells
Innate Immune Response Non specific response No memory Present from birth 1st and 2nd line of defense against antigens
Surface Barriers Skin, mucous membranes, and secretions - Physical barrier to most microorganisms
Surface Barriers Skin acidity -> inhibits bacterial growth Chemicals in sebum -> toxic to bacteria HCl and protein-digesting enzymes of stomach Lysozyme of saliva and lacrimal fluid Mucus - traps microorganisms that enter the digestive and respiratory systems
chemical barrier Skin acidity -> inhibits bacterial growth Chemicals in sebum -> toxic to bacteria HCl and protein-digesting enzymes of stomach Lysozyme of saliva and lacrimal fluid Mucus - traps microorganisms that enter the digestive and respiratory systems
Internal defense: Microorganisms that invade deeper tissue Phagocytes Natural killer (NK) cells Inflammatory response Antimicrobial proteins Fever
macrophages phagotcytic cells
neutrophils become phagocytic when encountering infectious material
Eosinophils secrete the toxic contents of their granules onto parasitic worms
Natural Killer Cells (NK) Can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected cells Are a small, distinct group of large granular lymphocytes Kill the target cells -> releasing cytolytic chemicals Secrete potent chemicals ->C enhance the inflammatory response
Inflammatory Response Triggered whenever body tissues are injured or infected Prevents the spread of damaging agents Disposes of cell debris and pathogens Sets the stage for repair
Signs of Acute inflammation Redness Heat Swelling Pain Impairment of function – sometimes
hyperemia Dilation of arterioles
edema leads to increased permeability of local capillaries
exudate contains proteins, clotting factors, and antibodies
Leukocytosis leukocytosis-inducing factors from injured cells -> release of neutrophils from bone marrow
Margination neutrophils cling to the walls of capillaries in the inflamed area
Steps to phagocyte mobilization leukocytosis margination Diapedesis of neutrophils Chemotaxis
Chemotaxis inflammatory chemicals (chemotactic agent) promote
Antimicrobial Proteins Interferons (IFNs) and complement proteins Interferons Complement
Interferons Viral-infected cells are activated to secrete IFNs
Complement Kills bacteria and certain other cell types -> cell lysis
Interferons (IFNs) and complement proteins Attack microorganisms directly Hinder microorganisms’ ability to reproduce
Fever Systemic response to invading microorganisms Leukocytes and macrophages exposed to foreign substances secrete -> pyrogens (cause heat) Pyrogens reset the body’s thermostat upward
The adaptive immune system is a functional system that Recognizes specific foreign substances Acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy foreign substances Amplifies inflammatory response and activates complement
Adaptive Immune System It has two separate but overlapping arms: Humoral, or antibody-mediated immunity Cellular, or cell-mediated immunity
Antigens Substances that can mobilize the immune system and provoke an immune response Targets complex molecules not normally found in the body (nonself)
complete antigens (foreign protein, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids)
incomplete antigens (poison ivy, cosmetics)
Characteristics of Antigens Can be a complete antigen or hapten (incomplete) Contain antigentic determinants Can be a self-antigen (blood antigens)
Functional properties of Antigens Immunogenicity Reactivity
Immunogenicity ability to stimulate proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibody production
Reactivity ability to react with products of activated lymphocytes and the antibodies released in response to them
Haptens (incomplete antigens) Small molecules (peptides, nucleotides, and hormones) Not immunogenic by themselves Are immunogenic when attached to body proteins Examples: poison ivy
Self-Antigens: MHC Proteins Our cells are dotted with protein molecules (self-antigens) that are not antigenic to us but are strongly antigenic to others
types of lymphocytes B lymphocytes (B cells)—humoral immunity T lymphocytes (T cells)—cell-mediated immunity
Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) Do not respond to specific antigens Play essential auxiliary roles in immunity Engulf antigens and present fragments of antigens to T cells for recognition
Lymphocytes origin site red bone marrow
b cell maturation site red bone marrow
t cell maturation site thymus
mature lymphocytes have... Immunocompetence; they are able to recognize and bind to a specific antigen Self-tolerance – unresponsive to self antigens
naive B and T cells are exported to exported to lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphoid organs
types of Antigen Presenting Cells Dendritic cells Macrophages B cells
humoral immune response When B cell encounters target antigen, it provokes  humoral immune response Antibodies specific for that particular antigen are then produced
Fate of secreted antibodies Circulate in blood or lymph Bind to free antigens Mark the antigens for destruction
Clone Cells Fate Most clone cells: become plasma cells secrete specific antibodies at the rate of 2k molecules per sec. for 4-5 day Some clone cells: become memory cells Provide immunological memory Mount an immediate response to future exposures of the same antigen
Primary Immune System Occurs on the first exposure to a specific antigen Lag period: three to six days Peak levels of plasma antibody are reached in 10 days Antibody levels then decline
Secondary Immune System Occurs on re-exposure to the same antigen Sensitized memory cells respond within hours Antibody levels peak in two to three days at much higher levels Antibodies bind with greater affinity Antibody level can remain high for weeks to months
Active Humoral Immunity Occurs when B cells encounter antigens and produce specific antibodies against them 2 types; Naturally Acquired Artificially Acquired
Naturally Acquired Humoral Immunity response to a bacterial or viral infection
Artificially Acquired Humoral Immunity response to a vaccine of dead or attenuated pathogens
Vaccines (Active Humoral Immunity) Spare us the symptoms of the primary response Provide antigenic determinants that are immunogenic and reactive Target only one type of helper T cell, so fail to fully establish cellular immunological memory
Passive Humoral Immunity two types: naturally acquired artificially acquired
Naturally Acquired Immunity (passive humoral immunity) antibodies delivered to a fetus via the placenta or to infant through milk
Artificially Acquired Passive Humoral Immunity injection of serum, such as gamma globulin Protection is immediate but ends when antibodies naturally degrade in the body
Antibodies Proteins secreted by plasma cells Capable of binding specifically with antigen detected by B cells The antibody classes- IgG, IgA, IgM , IgE , IgD
Immunoglobulins gamma globulin portion of blood
Antibodies Defensive Mechanisms Neutralization Agglutination Precipitation Complement fixation
Antibodies Target and Functions Antibodies do not destroy antigens; they inactivate and tag them Form antigen-antibody (immune) complexes
What do T cells provide defense against? intracellular antigens
Major Types of T cells CD4 cells become -> helper T cells (TH) when activated CD8 cells become -> cytotoxic T cells (TC) that destroy cells harboring foreign antigens
Other types of T cells Regulatory T cells (TREG) Memory T cells
T Cell Activation APCs (most often a dendritic cell) migrate to lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues to present their antigens to T cells
Steps to T cell Activation Antigen binding Co-stimulation
Roles of Helper T cells Play a central role in the adaptive immune response Once primed by APC presentation of antigen, they Help activate T and B cells Induce T and B cell proliferation Activate macrophages and recruit other immune cells
without T cells what happens? There is no immune response
Roles of Cytotoxic T(TC) Cells Targets Virus-infected cells Cells with intracellular bacteria or parasites Cancer cells Foreign cells (transfusions or transplants) Bind to a self-nonself complex Can destroy all infected or abnormal cells
Organ Transplant Types Autografts: from one body site to another in the same person Isografts: between identical twins Allografts: between individuals who are not identical twins Xenografts: from another animal species
Immunodeficiencies Congenital and acquired conditions that cause immune cells, phagocytes, or complement to behave abnormally
Autoimmune Diseases Immune system loses the ability to distinguish self from foreign Production of autoantibodies and sensitized TC cells that destroy body tissues
blood vessels delivery system that begins and ends at the heart
arteries carry blood away from the heart; oxygenated except for pulmonary artery
veins carry blood to the heart; deoxygenated except for pulmonary veins
capillaries contact tissue cells and directly serve cellular needs – business center of the heart
Structure of veins and arteries Tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa
lumen Central blood-containing space
Capillaries Endothelium with sparse basal lamina
Tunica Intima Endothelium lines the lumen of all vessels
Tunica media Smooth muscle - Sympathetic vasomotor nerve fibers control vasoconstriction and vasodilation of vessels Vasoconstriction: decreased lumen diameter Vasodilation: increased lumen diameter
Tunica externa (tunica adventitia) Collagen fibers protect and reinforce Larger vessels contain vasa vasorum to nourish the external layer
Elastic (Conducting) Arteries Large thick-walled arteries with elastin in all three tunics Large lumen offers low-resistance Act as pressure reservoirs—expand and recoil as blood is ejected from the heart Ex. Aorta and its major branches
Muscular (Distributing) Arteries and Arterioles Distal to elastic arteries -> deliver blood to body organs Have thick tunica media with more smooth muscle Active in vasoconstriction Ex. Renal artery, hepatic artery
arterioles Smallest arteries Lead to capillary beds Control flow into capillary beds via vasodilation and vasoconstriction
Capillaries Microscopic blood vessels Walls of thin tunica intima, one cell thick Size allows only a single RBC to pass at a time Functions: exchange of gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones, etc.
Capillaries locations In all tissues EXCEPT for cartilage, epithelia, cornea and lens of eye
Capillary types Continuous capillaries Fenestrated capillaries Sinusoidal capillaries (sinusoids)
Continuous capillaries least permeable and most common capillaries found in skin, lungs, muscle, CNS tight junctions around perimeter
Fenestrated capillaries large pores that increase permeability in areas of active filtration: kidneys and small intestine
Sinusoidal capillaries most permeable with few locations found in liver, bone marrow, spleen, adrenal medulla incomplete basement membranes
Microcirculation: flow of blood through capillary bed
capillary beds interwoven network of capillaries between arterioles and venules Capillary beds consist of two types of vessels Vascular shunt: True capillaries
Vascular shunt channel that connects arteriole directly with venule (metarteriole– thoroughfare channel)
True capillaries actual vessels involved in -> exchange
veins Veins: carry blood toward the heart Have all tunics, but thinner walls with large lumens compared with corresponding arteries Large lumen and thin walls make veins good storage vessels
venous valves Prevent backflow of blood Most abundant in veins of limbs
venous sinuses Flattened veins with extremely thin walls Composed only of endothelium Examples: coronary sinus of the heart and dural sinuses of the brain
where is blood pressure lower? veins
capacitance vessels (blood reservoirs) contain up to 65% of blood supply
4 types of anastomoses vascular anastomoses arterial anastomoses venous anastomoses arteriovenous anastomoses
vascular anastomoses interconnections of blood vessels
arterial anastomoses provide alternate pathways (collateral channels) to ensure continuous flow, even if one artery is blocked Common in joints, abdominal organs, brain, and heart none in retina, kidneys, spleen
venous anastomoses so abundant that occluded veins rarely block blood flow
arteriovenous anastomoses shunts in capillaries example: metarteriole–thoroughfare channel
cardiac output is determined by stroke volume heart rate
blood flow volume of blood flowing through vessel, organ, or entire circulation in given period
Blood pressure Force per unit area exerted on the wall of a blood vessel by the blood high to low gradient Expressed in mm Hg Measured as systemic arterial BP in large arteries near the heart
resistance (peripheral resistance) Opposition to flow Measure of the amount of friction blood encounters Generally encountered in the peripheral systemic circulation
three sources of resistance Blood viscosity Total blood vessel length Blood vessel diameter
blood viscosity The “stickiness” of the blood due to formed elements and plasma proteins
blood vessel length The longer the vessel, the greater the resistance encountered
blood vessel diameter Varies inversely with the fourth power of vessel radius
Systemic blood pressure The pumping action of the heart generates blood flow Pressure results when flow is opposed by resistance
where is systemic blood pressure highest? aorta
systolic pressure pressure exerted during ventricular contraction
diastolic pressure lowest level of arterial pressure
pulse pressure difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
mean arterial pressure (MAP) pressure that propels the blood to the tissues MAP = diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
pressure points areas where arteries are close to body surface Can be compressed to stop blood flow in event of hemorrhaging
capillary blood pressure Ranges from 15 to 35 mm Hg Low capillary pressure is desirable High BP would rupture fragile, thin-walled capillaries Most are very permeable, so low pressure forces filtrate into interstitial spaces
Venous blood pressure Changes little during the cardiac cycle Small pressure gradient, about 15 mm Hg Low pressure due to cumulative effects of peripheral resistance
Factors aiding venous return respiratory pump muscular pump vasoconstriction
respiratory pump pressure changes created during breathing move blood toward the heart by squeezing abdominal veins as thoracic veins expand
muscular pump contraction of skeletal muscles “milk” blood toward the heart and valves prevent backflow
Vasoconstriction veins under sympathetic control
blood pressure regulation factors Cardiac output (CO) Peripheral resistance (PR) Blood volume
BP regulation factors affected by SHORT TERM: neural and hormonal controls LONG TERM: renal controls
Regulating BP: Aldosterone Na retention Increases BP
Regulating BP: Angiotensin II—potent vasoconstrictor Raises BP Promotes Na+ and water retention by kidneys
Regulating BP: Atrial natriuretic peptide Reduces blood volume and promotes vasodilation Lowers BP
Regulating BP: ADH promotes water retention raises BP
Regulating BP: Epinephrine and norepinephrine Vasoconstriction (E) generally vasodilation at skeletal and cardiac raises BP
Are baroreceptors effective long-term? NO
Renal Regulation Mechanisms Direct Renal Mechanism Indirect Renal (renin-angiotensin) Mechanism
Direct Renal Mechanism Increased BP or blood volume causes -> elimination of more urine -> BP reduces Decreased BP or blood volume causes -> kidneys to conserve water -> BP rises
Indirect (renin-angiotensin) Mechanism decreases Arterial blood pressure -> release of renin from kidney renin -> production of angiotensin II -> Angiotensin II aldosterone -> renal reabsorption of Na+ -> water reabsorb -> decreases urine formation
Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone stimulates the thirst center in hypothalamus stimulates ADH release
Capillary Exchange Mechanisms Diffusion, transcytosis, filtration, and reabsorption
routes used by chemicals for capillary exchange Through endothelial cell cytoplasm Intercellular clefts between endothelial cells Filtration pores (fenestrations) of the fenestrated capillaries
Blood hydrostatic pressure drives fluid out of capillary High on arterial end of capillary, low on venous end
Colloid osmotic pressure (COP) draws fluid into capillary Results from plasma proteins (albumin)—more in blood
Colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and Blood hydrostatic pressure opposing forces
Where is Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure higher? arterial or venule end? arterial end (35 mm Hg)
Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure blood pressure of capillaries Tends to force fluids through capillary walls
Interstital Hydrostatic Pressure Pressure that would push fluid into vessel Usually assumed to be zero because of lymphatic vessels
where does capillary re-absorption take place? venous end of capillaries
where does capillary filtration take place? arterial end
What is Glomeruli devoted to? filtration
What are Alveolar capillaries devoted to? absorption
normal BP 120/80
Hypertension BP: more than 140/90 mm
Hypotension BP: less than 90/60 mm
Circulatory Shock - Condition where blood vessels inadequately fill and cannot circulate blood normally - Inadequate blood flow cannot meet tissue needs
arch of the aortic branches B - brachiocephalic trunk C - left common carotid S - left subclavian
Aorta Asending aorta Arch of aorta Decending aorta
Brachiocephalic Gives blood supply to: -Right subclavian -Right common carotid - Right internal carotid -> to the brain - Left external carotid -> to the head and neck
Left Common Carotid Gives blood supply to: - Left internal carotid - Left external carotid
Left subclavian Gives blood supply to - arm
Blood vessels of arm - subclavian - axillary - brachial - ulna - radius
What does the Circle of Willis consist of? - Internal carotid - Vertebral -> basilar
Celiac Trunk: - Splenic - Hepatic - Gastroduodenal
Abdominal Aorta arteries - celiac trunk - superior mesenteric - inferior mesenteric
Superior mesenteric: - Intestinal -> small intestines
Inferior mesenteric: Intestinal -> large intestines
Abdominal aorta paired branches - renal (R and L) - gonadal (R and L) - common iliac
arteries of lower leg - External iliac - Femoral - Popliteal - Tibial -> Dorsalis pedis - Fibular
types of veins in arm - superficial veins - deep veins
superficial veins of arm - Basilic -> medial side -> axillary - Cephalic -> lateral side -> subclavian
deep veins of arm - Ulna & radial - Brachial -> axillary -> subclavian
deep veins of lower limb - Tibial and fibular -> popliteal -> femoral -> external iliac (pelvis)
superficial veins of lower limb - Small saphenous -> popliteal - great saphenous -> femoral
Abdominal veins - External + internal iliac veins -> common iliac (L and R) - 2 common iliac -> IVC inferior vena cava - Renal -> IVC - Gonadal -> IVC
Hepatic portal vein - only vein that carries nutrients rich blood from small intestines
respiratory zone - site of gas exchange - Microscopic structures: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
conducting zone - conduits to gas exchange sites - Includes all other respiratory structures
respiratory muscles diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation
nasal cavity - Respiratory mucosa - Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium - Mucous and serous secretions - Cilia
pharynx -muscular tube 3 regions - nasopharnx - oropharynx - layngopharynx
nasopharynx - Air passageway posterior to the nasal cavity - Lining: pseudostratified columnar epithelium - Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)- on posterior wall - Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes - open into the lateral walls
oropharynx - Passageway for food and air from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis - Lining of stratified squamous epithelium - Palatine tonsils - in the lateral walls - Lingual tonsil - on the posterior surface of the tongue
Laryngopharynx - Passageway for food and air - Posterior to the upright epiglottis - Extends to the larynx, where it is also continuous with the esophagus
larynx continuous with trachea
functions of larynx - Provides a patent airway - Routes air and food into proper channels - Voice production
cartilages of the layrnx (9 rings) 1: thyroid cartilage: shield shaped cartilage (Adam's Apple) 2: cricoid cartilage: ring shaped 3 and 4: Paired arytenoid cartilages 5 and 6: Paired cuneiform cartilages 7 and 8: Paired corniculate cartilages 9: Epiglottis
True vocal folds - Attach the arytenoid cartilages to the thyroid cartilage - Opening between them is the -> glottis - Folds vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from the lungs
Vestibular vocal folds (false vocal cords) - Superior to the vocal folds - No part in sound production - Help to close the glottis during swallowing
Speech (Larynx) - Speech: intermittent release of expired air while opening and closing the glottis - Vocal folds may act as a sphincter to prevent air passage
Trachea - windpipe (from larynx to mediastinum) - 3 layers to wall
Layers of the Trachea - Mucosa - Submucosa - Adventitia
Mucosa (Trachea) - ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells
Submucosa (Trachea) - connective tissue with glands
Adventitia (Trachea) - outermost layer made of connective tissue that encases the C- shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
Right main bronchus - wider - shorter - more vertical
Left vertical bronchus - narrow - long - less vertical
conducting zone structures - trachea -> right and left main bronchus - each main bronchus enteres the hilum of one lung
conducting zone structure continued each main bronchus branches into -> Lobar (secondary) bronchi (three right, two left) -> segmental bronchi -> bronchioles -> terminal bronchioles Each lobar bronchus supplies one lobe
structural changes in conducting zones - Support structures change - epithelium type changes - amount of smooth muscle increases
Smooth muscle increases - Allows bronchioles to provide substantial resistance to air passage
endothelium type changes - Pseudostratified columnar gives way to cuboidal - Cilia and goblet cells become more sparse
support structure changes - Cartilage rings become irregular plates - In bronchioles, elastic fibers replace cartilage altogether
respiratory membrane - air-blood barrier - Alveolar wall - Capillary wall - Their fused basement membranes - Alveolar walls - Type I cells - Single layer of squamous epithelium - Type II cuboidal cells -Scattered secrete surfactant
apex (lungs) - superior tip of lungs
base (lungs) - inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm
hilum (lungs) - on mediastinal surface; site for attachment of blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
left lung - smaller than right - two lobes separated by the oblique fissure - contains the cardiac notch
right lung - larger - three lobes separated by horizontal and oblique fissures
pulmonary circulation - low pressure, high volume of blood - pulmonary arteries - delivers systematic venous blood - pulmonary veins - carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to the heart
Plurae - thin double layered serosa - Parietal pleura on thoracic wall and superior face of diaphragm - Visceral pleura on external lung surface - Pleural fluid fills the slitlike pleural cavity - Provides lubrication and surface tension
Pulmonary Ventilation - breathing - movement of air in and out of lungs
External Respiration - O2 and CO2 exchange between the lungs and the blood
Transport - O2 and CO2 transported in the blood
Internal Respiration - O2 and CO2 exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
Mechanics of Breathing - inspiration: gases flow into lungs - expiration: gases flow out of lungs
Atmospheric Pressure - pressure exerted by the air surrounding the body - 760 mm Hg at sea level
Respiratory Pressures - described relative to atmospheric pressure - negative respiratory pressure is less than atmospheric pressure - positive respiratory pressure is greater than atmospheric pr. - zero respiratory pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure
Intrapulmonary (intra alveolar) pressure - Pressure in the alveoli - Always eventually equalizes with Patm
Intra pleural pressure - Pressure in the pleural cavity - Always a negative pressure (<Patm and <Ppul)
Pulmonary Ventilation - inspiration - expiration - mechanical processes that depend on volume changes in the thoracic cavity - Volume changes -> pressure changes - Pressure changes -> gases flow to equalize pressure
Boyle's Law - relationship between pressure and volume of a gas - pressure and volume are inversely related
Inspiration - an active process - inspiratory muscles contract - thoracic volume increases - lungs are stretched - intrapulmonary volume increases - intrapulmonary pressure: -1 mm hg - air flows into lungs down pressure gradient
Expiration - typically passive process - inspiratory muscles relax - thoracic cavity volume decreases - lungs recoil and intrapulmonary pressure - pressure rises to 1 mm hg - air flows out of lungs until pressure equals 0
factors that hinder air passage and pulmonary ventilation - airway resistance - lung compliance - alveolar surface tension
Surfactant - produced by type II alveolar cells - reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid (discourages alveolar collapse)
Factors used to assess someone's respiratory status - Tidal volume (TV) - Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) - Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) - Residual volume (RV)
tidal volume - Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions (500 ml for adults)
inspiratory reserve volume - Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation - men 3100 ml women 1900 ml
expiratory reserve volume - Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation - men 1200 ml women 700 ml
residual volume - Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation - men 1200 ml, women 1100 ml)
total lung capacity - Maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort: TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV - men 6000 ml, women 4200 ml
vital capacity - Maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort: VC = TV + IRV + ERV - men 4800 ml, women 3100 ml
inspiratory capacity - Maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal expiration: IC = TV + IRV - men 3600 ml, women 2400 ml
functional residual capacity - Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration: FRC = ERV + RV - men 2400 ml, 1800 ml
Anatomical dead space - doesn't contribute to gas exchange - air that remains in the passageways
alveolar dead space - space occupied by nonfunctional (due to collapse or obstruction) alveoli
spirometer - instrument used to measure respiratory volumes and capacities
Dalton's law of partial pressure - Total pressure exerted by mixture of gases is equal to sum of pressures exerted by each gas
partial pressure - Pressure exerted by each gas in mixture - Directly proportional to its percentage in mixture
Henry's law - For gas mixtures in contact with liquids: - Each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure - At equilibrium, partial pressures in the two phases will be equal
External respiration - exchange of 02 and CO2 cross respiratory membrane
Internal respiration - Capillary gas exchange in body tissues - Partial pressures and diffusion gradients are reversed compared to external respiration Po2 in tissue is always lower than in systemic arterial blood Po2 of venous blood is 40 mm Hg and Pco2 is 45 mm Hg
Oxygen transport % breakdowns - 98.5% of oxygen from lungs is bound to hemoglobin
Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve - the curve describes the relationship between - the partial pressure of oxygen (x axis) - oxygen saturation (y axis)
factors that can shift the curve to the right - Decrease in pH - Increase acid or H+ - Increase CO2 - Bohr effect - Increase temperature
shift to the right - Conditions or chemicals causing -> O2 and Hb to have looser binding -> - Changes the shape of binding surfaces of Hb molecules -> wider configuration Hb -> - O2 can bind but looser -> - O2 can delivered to the tissues faster
Bohr Effect - Declining blood pH (acidosis) and increasing Pco2 cause Hb-O2 bond to weaken
times when curve shifts to right - exercise (increased temp, CO2 released)
factors that can shift curve to the left - Increase in pH - Decrease acid or H+ - Decrease CO2 - Decrease temperature
shift to the left - Conditions or chemicals causing -> O2 and Hb to have tighter binding -> - O2 is binding to the Hb -> - Little O2 delivered to tissues
carbon dioxide transport - dissolved in plasma (10%) - bound to hemoglobin (20%) - bicarbonate ions in plasma (70%)
central chemoreceptors - rising CO2 - low pH
peripheral chemo receptors - decrease in PO2 - increase in CO2 - decrease in pH
Created by: davisobr



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