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A&P III

Circulatory System

QuestionAnswer
what is the function of the circulatory system move nutrients, gas and waste to and from the cells in the body stabilize BT and pH
arteries and arterioles carry blood______ the ________ to ________ from, heart , tissue
what does a venules do merge to form veins that bring blood back to the heart
what is vasa vasorum a vessel in the wall of a larger vessel
what is Blood pressure Pressure on walls of a vessel caused by contraction of the ventricles
true or false Water retention increases blood pressure true
what is the The top number in blood pressure systolic
what is the systolic reading the maximum pressure exerted when the heart (left ventricle) contracts.
what is The bottom number in blood pressure diastolic
what is diastolic the pressure in the arteries when the heart (left ventricle) is at rest.
what tools are used to measure BP stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer
BP is ____ in arteries; ______ in veins Greater , lower
what is BP influenced by heart rate, blood volume, blood thickness, blood vessel diameter and length, amount of blood pumped with each beat, age (BP rises with age: arteries less distensible) elasticity of the arteries.
what is Hypertension BP > 140/90
what is Hypotension BP < 110/70
Does obesity cause high BP yes
what is Venous Return Volume of blood flowing back to the heart from the systemic veins
what is syncope Fainting or a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness not due to trauma lack of blood flow to the brain
what is shock failure of cardiovascular system to deliver enough O2 and nutrients
name 2 types of shock Hypovolemic Cardiogenic
define Cardiogenic shock caused by damage to pumping action of the heart (MI, ischemia, valve problems or arrhythmias)
define Hypovolemic shock due to loss of blood or body fluids (hemorrhage, sweating, diarrhea)
describe the Basic Anatomy of Circulatory routes
describe what a capillaries is walls one-cell thick which allows for diffusion of nutrients between cells & blood
what does the vein do carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart thin walls
describe arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart thick, elastic walls
pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood
name characteristic of veins Have smooth muscle in their walls, but less than in arteries Have oval interiors/are somewhat flattened Blood pressure is much less than in arteries Most of the blood in the body is within veins
name characteristic arteries Have thick walls of smooth muscle, which contract to help move blood along Blood pressure is highest in arteries Blood flow is fastest in larger arteries
name the 3 layers of tissue surrounding “lumen” in veins and arteries tunica interna, tunica media & tunica externa
name the innermost endothelium of simple squamous epithelium + basement membrane (= endocardium) Tunica Interna
name the middle layer containing smooth muscle (for contractility/vasoconstriction) & elastic CT (for elasticity) Tunica Media
name the layer made of collagenous CT Tunica Externa (a.k.a. adventitia)
what is a Venules made of – endothelium (tunica interna) + thin layer of CT (tunica externa)
what occurs at the capillary bed. vital exchange between blood and interstitial fluid
which is the most important vessel capillaries
how thick is the Capillary wall single cell thick, blood passes single file
describe key points of the Pulmonary circuit Right side of heart Receives blood from systemic circulation Ejects blood into pulmonary trunk then pulmonary arteries Gas exchange in pulmonary capillaries Pulmonary veins takes blood to left atrium
Systemic circuit-Left side of heart Receives blood from lungs Ejects blood into aorta Systemic arteries, arterioles Gas and nutrient exchange in systemic capillaries Systemic venules and veins lead back to right atrium Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
which is largest artery of the body Aorta
what branches to the arms & head arch of aorta --
name what branches to the arms & head off the arch of aorta brachiocephalic trunk branches into right and left common carotid and right and left subclavian
Thoracic aorta supplies branches where to pericardium, esophagus, bronchi, diaphragm, intercostal & chest muscles, mammary gland, skin, vertebrae and spinal cord
Abdominal aorta supplies branches to the abdominal and pelvic viscera and lower limbs
what is the Circle of Willis on base of brain formed by anastomosis of basilar & paired internal carotid aa
Blood from the lower extremities and abd. enter where enters the IVC
Venous blood from the head, neck ,upper extremities and thoracic cavity, with the exception of the lungs, drains where drains into the SVC.
The large veins of the cranial cavity, formed by the dura mater, are called sinuses.
where is Drained blood from entire body returned to to right side of heart
name what empties into the right atrium super and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus
superior vena cava drains t he head and upper extremities
inferior vena cava drains the abdomen, pelvis & lower limbs
coronary sinus is large vein draining the heart muscle back into the heart
Pulmonary Circulation carries what DF, RV, AL, R, LA Carries deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to air sacs in the lungs and returns it to the left atria
Pulmonary Circulation Vessels include pulmonary trunk, arteries and veins
describe the route of the Pulmonary Circulation Deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle enters the lungs via the Pulmonary trunk (Artery).
The pulmonary capillaries unite to form what venules.
name the 4 branches of pulmonary veins. 2 left pulmonary veins 2 right pulmonary veins
Exchange between fetal and maternal circulations occur where at the placenta.
Oxygen from placenta reaches heart via fetal veins in umbilical cord.
what is a Aneurysm abnormal widening (balooning) of arterial wall
what is Varicose veins (varices) enlarged veins in which blood pools rather than continue on towards the heart. Varicosities, also called varices most commonly occur in superficial veins near the surface of the body
Thrombophlebitis vein inflammation (phlebitis) accompanied by clot (thrombus) formation
what does the ascending aorta supply 2 coronary arteries supply myocardium
Right & left coronary arteries branch to supply what to supply heart muscle
what is the branching network at the capillary bed heart down to arteries down to arterioles over to capillary up to venues up to veins over to heart
pulmonary arteries carry what kind of blood deoxygenated
Systemic circulation is ___side ___ to _____& back to _______ left heart body heart
Pulmonary circulation is____-side_____ to_____ & back to ____ right heart lungs heart
Fetal circulation is from fetal___through_____ to ______ & back heart \umbilical cord placenta
Created by: knt5411